Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Xylene, Toluene, Benzene

Cohort Study—Incidence

Anttila et al., 1998

Finnish workers biologically monitored for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons (styrene, toluene, xylene)

5

1.26 (0.41–2.93)

Case-Control Studies

Ji et al., 1999

Residents of Shanghai, China

 

 

Chemical and rubber workers (female)

5

1.4 (0.4–4.7)

 

Rubber workers (female)

5

1.7 (0.5–5.8)

 

Printers (male)

4

5.2 (1.1–25.0)

Gérin et al., 1998

Male residents of Montreal, Canada

 

 

Xylene, medium/high exposure

4

1.1 (0.4–3.3)

 

Toluene, medium/high exposure

3

0.6 (0.2–2.2)

 

Benzene, medium/high exposure

3

0.4 (0.1–1.4)

Methylene Chloride

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Hearne and Pifer, 1999

Male Kodak workers in New York state, employed >1 year

 

Methylene chloride cohort

5

0.92 (0.30–2.14)

 

Internal comparison, ≥800 ppm-years

3

2.34

 

Roll-coating division (New York state control)

8

1.51 (0.65–2.98)

 

Roll-coating division (Kodak Rochester control)

8

1.55 (0.67–3.06)

Tomenson et al., 1997

Male cellulose triacetate film workers, ever employed

3

0.68 (0.14–1.99)

Gibbs et al., 1996

Cellulose-fiber production workers

 

 

High exposure, males

1

0.35 (0.01–1.92)

 

High exposure, females

0

0

 

Low exposure, males

2

0.89 (0.11–3.22)

 

Low exposure, females

1

0.58 (0.01–3.23)

Lanes et al., 1993

Cellulose-fiber production plant workers, employed >3 months

2

0.83 (0.10–2.99)

Phenol

Cohort Study—Mortality

Dosemeci et al., 1991

Male workers in five US chemical plants

 

Phenol, any exposure

14

0.6 (0.4–1.1)

Unspecified Mixtures of Organic Solvents

Cohort Study—Incident

Anttila et al., 1995

Finnish workers biologically monitored for exposure to halogenated hydrocarbons (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane)

12

1.56 (0.81–2.72)

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Fu et al., 1996

Shoemakers in England and Florence

 

 

English cohort

25

0.70 (0.45–1.04)

 

Florence cohort

2

0.54 (0.07–1.95)

Acquavella et al., 1993

Metal-components manufacturing workers, ever exposed

1

2.9 (0.1–16.0)

Costantini et al., 1989

Male leather workers in Tuscany, Italy, employed >6 months

4

1.46 (0.39–3.73)



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement