Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Tetrachloroethylene and Dry-cleaning Solvents

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Ruder et al., 2001

US dry-cleaning workers

 

 

Dry-cleaning, employed >1 year

20

0.91 (0.55–1.40)

 

Tetrachloroethylene only

6

0.78 (0.28–1.69)

Boice et al., 1999

Aircraft-manufacturing workers in California

 

 

Potential routine exposure

4

1.16 (0.32–2.97)

Blair et al., 1990

Dry-cleaning union members in Missouri (females)

36

1.0 (0.7–1.4)

Case-Control Studies

Band et al., 2000

Female cases from the British Columbia Cancer Registry

 

 

Premenopausal

 

 

Laundering or dry-cleaning (occupation)

 

 

Usual exposure

1

 

Ever exposed

4

1.77 (0.41–7.72)

 

Postmenopausal

 

 

Laundry or dry-cleaning (occupation)

 

 

Usual exposure

8

4.85 (1.26–18.7)

 

Ever exposed

8

1.33 (0.55–3.19)

 

Laundering and dry-cleaning (industry)

 

 

Usual exposure

9

5.24 (1.41–19.5)

 

Ever exposed

12

1.42 (0.68–2.99)

 

Power laundries or dry cleaners (industry)

 

 

Usual exposure

9

2.00 (0.78–5.13)

 

Ever exposed

21

1.67 (0.89–3.13)

Aschengrau et al., 1998

Residents of upper Cape Cod, MA

 

Postmenopausal women

 

 

75th percentile (9-year latency)

NA

3.4 (0.7–19.1)

 

90th percentile (9-year latency)

NA

7.8 (0.9–167.0)

Benzene

Cohort Study—Incidence

Hansen, 2000

Male members of the national pension fund in Denmark

 

 

No lag time

19

2.2 (1.4–3.6)

 

>10 years lag

12

2.5 (1.3–4.5)

Cohort Study—Mortality

Yin et al., 1996a

Chinese factory workers (females), ever exposed

8

0.9 (0.3–3.2)

Case-Control Study

Petralia et al., 1999

Female residents of New York state

 

 

Any exposure

56

1.91 (1.18–3.08)

 

Duration <4 years

8

0.80 (0.30–2.16)

 

Duration ≥4 years

16

3.38 (1.25–9.17)

 

Low probability

8

1.22 (0.42–3.56)

 

Medium or high probability

16

2.14 (0.89–5.12)

 

Low intensity

16

2.38 (0.97–5.87)

 

Medium or high intensity

8

1.07 (0.37–3.07)

 

Low cumulative

13

1.43 (0.59–3.47)

 

Medium or high cumulative

11

2.21 (0.77–6.36)

 

10 to 19 year latency

5

1.23 (0.34–4.46)

 

≥20 year latency

16

2.09 (0.85–5.14)



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