Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Case-Control Study

Gérin et al., 1998

Male residents of Montreal, Canada

 

 

Low exposure

64

1.1 (0.8–1.5)

 

Medium exposure

22

1.7 (0.9–3.0)

 

High exposure

9

0.9 (0.4–2.1)

Methylene Chloride

Cohort Study—Mortality

Gibbs et al., 1996

Cellulose-fiber production workers

 

 

High exposure

13

1.79 (0.95–3.06)

 

≥20-year latency

NA

2.08 (p<0.05)

 

≥20-year latency and ≥20-year duration

NA

2.91 (p≤0.05)

 

Low exposure

9

1.40 (0.64–2.66)

 

No exposure

3

1.04 (0.22–3.05)

Unspecified Mixtures of Organic Solvents

Cohort Study—Incidence

Anttila et al., 1995

Finnish workers monitored for exposure

 

 

Halogenated hydrocarbons

14

1.38 (0.76–2.32)

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Boice et al., 1999

Aircraft-manufacturing workers in California

 

 

Mixed solvents, routine exposure

70

1.0 (0.78–1.26)

 

Years exposed

 

 

<1

31

0.99 (0.65–1.49)

 

1–4

64

0.81 (0.59–1.13)

 

≥5

139

0.77 (0.58–1.02)

 

 

 

p-trend=0.06

Greenland et al., 1994

White male US transformer-assembly workers

 

Solvents, ever exposed

NA

0.84 (0.49–1.42)

Garabrant et al., 1988

Aircraft-manufacturing workers in California

25

0.93 (0.60–1.37)

Matanoski et al., 1986

US painters and allied tradesmen union members

117

0.99 (0.82–1.18)

Morgan et al., 1981

Male US paint and coatings manufacturers, employed >1 year

29

0.84

NOTE: NA=not available.

Epidemiologic Studies of Exposure to Organic Solvents and Bladder Cancer

All but one (Aschengrau et al., 1993) of the case-control studies of bladder cancer reviewed by the committee used occupational history to assess exposure, and in some studies information on specific chemical exposures was also obtained (Gérin et al., 1998; Pesch et al., 2000a). The study by Aschengrau and colleagues assessed exposure on the basis of estimated doses of tetrachloroethylene found in public drinking water in five towns of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Two studies included interviews with proxies if subjects were too ill to be interviewed (Morrison et al., 1985; Teschke et al., 1997). Most studies simply grouped exposure defined broadly on the basis of occupation, including work in the painting industry (Cordier et al., 1993; Jensen et al., 1987; La Vecchia et al., 1990; Morrison et al., 1985; Vineis and Magnani, 1985), in laundry and dry-cleaning services (Silverman et al., 1989a,b; Smith et al., 1985), and in both fields (Schoenberg et al., 1984; Teschke et al.,



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