TABLE 6.28 Selected Epidemiologic Studies—Bladder Cancer and Exposure to Organic Solvents

Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Trichloroethylene

Cohort Studies—Incidence

Hansen et al., 2001

Biologically monitored Danish workers

 

 

Males, ever exposed

10

1.1 (0.5–2.0)

 

Females, ever exposed

0

Blair et al., 1998

Aircraft maintenance in Utah

 

 

No trichloroethylene exposure

10

1.3 (0.5–3.5)

 

<5 unit-years

13

1.7 (0.6–4.4)

 

5–25 unit-years

9

1.7 (0.6–4.9)

Anttila et al., 1995

Finnish workers occupationally exposed

 

 

Entire period since first measurement

5

0.82 (0.27–1.90)

 

0–9

1

0.65 (0.02–3.59)

 

10–19

2

0.61 (0.07–2.22)

 

20+

2

1.51 (0.18–5.44)

Axelson et al., 1994

Swedish men, occupationally exposed

8

1.02 (0.44–2.00)

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Boice et al., 1999

Aircraft-manufacturing workers in California, routine exposure

5

0.55 (0.18–1.28)

Blair et al., 1998

Aircraft maintenance workers in Utah

 

 

Any exposure

17

1.2 (0.5–2.9)

 

No trichloroethylene exposure

4

0.7 (0.2–2.8)

 

<5 unit-years

7

1.8 (0.5–6.2)

 

5–25 unit-years

5

2.1 (0.6–8.0)

 

Low-level intermittent

10

1.5 (0.4–4.8)

 

Low-level continuous

9

2.0 (0.6–6.4)

Morgan et al., 1998

Aerospace workers in Arizona

 

Any exposure

8

1.36 (0.59–2.68)

 

Low exposure

1

0.51 (0.01–2.83)

 

High exposure

7

1.79 (0.72–3.69)

Greenland et al., 1994

White male US transformer manufacturers, ever exposed

NA

0.85 (0.32–3.32)

Case-Control Study

Pesch et al., 2000a

Participants in multiple centers in Germany

 

 

German job-exposure matrix

 

 

Trichloroethylene (males)

 

 

Medium

154

1.1 (0.8–1.3)

 

High

182

1.1 (0.9–1.4)

 

Substantial

68

1.3 (0.9–1.7)

 

Trichloroethylene (females)

 

 

Medium

21

1.0 (0.6–1.7)

 

High

32

1.6 (1.0–2.5)

 

Substantial

3

0.6 (0.2–2.3)

 

Job task-exposure matrix approach

 

 

Trichloroethylene (males)

 

 

Medium

47

0.8 (0.6–1.2)

 

High

74

1.3 (0.9–1.7)

 

Substantial

36

1.8 (1.2–2.7)



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement