Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Tetrachloroethylene and Dry-cleaning Solvents

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Ruder et al., 2001

Dry-cleaning labor-union workers

10

2.22 (1.06–4.08)

 

≥5 years exposure with >20 years latency

8

4.31 (1.85–8.76)

 

Tetrachloroethylene plus other solvents (likely Stoddard)

10

3.15 (1.51–5.79)

Blair et al., 1990

Members of a dry-cleaning union in St. Louis, MO

8

1.7 (0.7–3.3)

Case-Control Studies

Pesch et al., 2000a

Participants in multiple centers in Germany

 

 

German job-exposure matrix

 

 

Tetrachloroethylene (males)

 

 

Medium

162

1.1 (0.9–1.3)

 

High

172

1.2 (1.0–1.5)

 

Substantial

71

1.4 (1.0–1.9)

 

Tetrachloroethylene (females)

 

 

Medium

21

1.8 (1.0–3.0)

 

High

16

1.0 (0.6–1.9)

 

Substantial

3

0.7 (0.2–2.5)

 

Job task-exposure matrix approach

 

 

Tetrachloroethylene (males)

 

 

Medium

37

1.0 (0.7–1.5)

 

High

47

1.2 (0.8–1.7)

 

Substantial

22

1.8 (1.1–3.1)

Teschke et al., 1997

Residents of British Columbia, Canada

 

Laundry personnel, ever employed

5

2.3 (0.4–13.9)

 

Laundry personnel, most recent 20 years removed

4

1.8 (0.3–11.3)

Aschengrau et al., 1993

Residents of upper Cape Cod, MA

 

Any exposure (no latency)

13

1.55 (0.74–3.01)

 

Low exposure

9

1.16 (0.48–2.48)

 

High exposure

4

6.04 (1.32–21.84)

Silverman et al., 1989b

Nonwhite males in 10 US areas

 

Dry cleaner, ironer, or presser, ever employed

11

2.8 (1.1–7.4)

 

<5 years duration

7

5.3

 

5+ years duration

4

1.8

Smith et al., 1985

Incident cases in 10 US areas

 

 

Laundry and dry cleaners, ever employed

 

 

Nonsmoker

NA

1.31 (0.85–2.03)

 

Former smoker

NA

2.99 (1.80–4.97)

 

Current smoker

NA

3.94 (2.39–6.51)

 

Chemically related exposure group

 

 

Nonsmoker

NA

1.11 (0.99–1.25)

 

Former smoker

NA

2.01 (1.69–2.40)

 

Current smoker

NA

3.12 (2.62–3.71)

Schoenberg et al., 1984

Male residents of New Jersey

 

Dry-cleaning, ever employed

7

1.33 (0.50–3.58)



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