Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

 

Low-level exposure

6

1.5 (0.6–3.4)

 

High-level exposure

18

1.8 (1.1–2.9)

 

High probability and high-level exposure

16

1.7 (1.0–2.8)

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Ireland et al., 1997

Benzene-exposed male Monsanto workers

 

 

Production workers

 

 

 

<12 ppm-month

1

1.6 (0.0–8.7)

 

12–72 ppm-month

1

1.9 (0.0–10.5)

 

≥72 ppm-month

2

4.4 (0.5–15.8)

 

Maintenance workers

6

1.2 (0.4–2.5)

Yin et al., 1996a

Chinese factory workers, ever exposed

13

1.3 (0.5–4.1)

Hayes et al., 1996

Benzene-exposed workers in China

 

 

Cumulative exposure

 

 

 

<10 ppm-years

1

0.8

 

10–39 ppm-years

3

1.9

 

40–99 ppm-years

2

1.3

 

100–400 ppm-years

1

0.4

 

400+ ppm-years

5

2.3

 

p trend=0.48

Greenland et al., 1994

White male US transformer-assembly workers, ever exposed, high probability

NA

2.1 (1.0–4.4)

Carpenter et al., 1988

Workers at two nuclear facilities, ever exposed

 

 

No latency

28

0.76

 

10-year-latency

20

0.57

Case-Control Study

Rodvall et al., 1996

Hospital catchment-area residents of Sweden, ever exposed (gliomas)

NA

5.5 (1.4–21.3)

Other Specific Organic Solvents

Cohort Study—Incidence

Anttila et al., 1998

Finnish workers biologically monitored for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons

 

 

Toluene

3

1.09 (0.22–3.18)

 

Xylene

3

1.62 (0.33–4.72)

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Dosemeci et al., 1991

Male US industrial workers exposed to phenol

10

0.7 (0.4–1.4)

Leffingwell et al., 1983

Male workers at a Texas chemical plant, ever exposed (gliomas)

 

 

Diethylene glycol

11

1.25 (0.48–3.25)b

 

Ethanol

11

1.19 (0.47–3.01)b

 

Isopropanol

13

1.73 (0.59–5.07)b

Case-Control Studies

Rodvall et al., 1996

Hospital catchment-area residents of Sweden, ever exposed (gliomas)

 

 

Toluene

NA

3.4 (0.6–19.3)

 

Xylene

NA

3.3 (0.6–18.6)



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