Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Heineman et al., 1994

Male residents of Louisiana, New Jersey, and Philadelphia, ever exposed to chloroform (astrocytic brain tumors)

 

 

All

46

1.0 (0.6–1.6)

 

Low probability

30

0.8 (0.5–1.4)

 

Medium probability

12

3.2 (0.9–12.0)

 

High probability

1

0.2 (0.0–1.8)

Unspecified Mixtures of Organic Solvents

Cohort Study—Incidence

Heineman et al., 1995

Women in Shanghai, China

 

 

Low probability of exposure

89

1.2 (1.0–1.5)

 

High probability of exposure

27

2.0 (1.3–3.0)

 

Low-level exposure

68

1.7 (1.0–1.6)

 

High-level exposure

48

1.5 (1.1–2.0)

 

High probability and high-level exposure

24

1.9 (1.2–2.8)

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Boice et al., 1999

Aircraft-manufacturing workers in California

 

 

Mixed solvents, potential routine exposure

13

0.68 (0.36–1.16)

Greenland et al., 1994

White male US transformer-assembly workers, ever exposed

NA

2.65 (0.84–8.36)

Carpenter et al., 1988

Workers at two nuclear facilities, ever exposed

 

 

Trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, or methyl chloroform

 

 

No latency

29

1.76

 

10-year latency

21

1.26

 

Toluene, xylene, or methyl ethyl ketone

 

 

No latency

28

1.96

 

10-year latency

19

1.37

Case-Control Studies

Rodvall et al., 1996

Hospital catchment-area residents of Sweden, ever exposed (gliomas)

 

 

Males

23

2.6 (1.3–5.2)

 

Females

2

0.4 (0.1–2.0)

Heineman et al., 1994

Male residents of Louisiana, New Jersey, and Philadelphia (astrocytic brain tumors)

 

 

Ever exposed

186

1.4 (0.9–1.8)

 

Low probability

48

1.1 (0.6–1.7)

 

Medium probability

32

1.5 (0.8–2.7)

 

High probability

106

1.4 (0.9–2.1)

 

Duration of employment

 

 

2–20 years

80

1.1 (0.7–1.7)

 

21+ years

87

1.7 (1.1–2.6)



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