Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

 

Exposure levels (females)

 

 

Low-level intermittent

4

3.9 (0.8–17.7)

 

Low-level continuous

2

3.4 (0.5–21.7)

 

Frequent peaks

5

3.8 (0.9–16.2)

Morgan et al., 1998

Aerospace workers in Arizona

 

 

Trichloroethylene-exposed subcohort

 

 

Lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma

3

0.96 (0.20–2.81)

 

All other lymphopoietic tissue

11

1.01 (0.51–1.81)

Wilcosky et al., 1984

Male US rubber-industry workers, exposed >1 year

3

2.4

Case-Control Studies

Persson and Fredriksson, 1999

Residents of Sweden

 

1+ years exposed, latency 5–45 years

16

1.2 (0.5–2.4)

Hardell et al., 1994

Male residents of Sweden

 

 

Ever exposed

4

7.2 (1.3–42)

Benzene

Cohort Studies—Incidence

Hayes et al., 1997

Chinese factory workers

16

3.0 (0.9–10.5)

 

Exposed workers, year of hire

 

 

<1972

15

4.1

 

≥1972

1

0.5

 

Exposed workers, average ppm

 

 

<10

7

2.7 (0.7–10.6)

 

10–24

2

1.7 (0.3–10.2)

 

≥25

7

4.7 (1.2–18.1)

 

Exposed workers, duration

 

 

<5 years

1

0.7 (0.1–7.2)

 

5–9 years

4

3.3 (0.7–14.7)

 

≥10 years

11

4.2 (1.1–15.9)

 

Exposed workers, cumulative exposure

 

 

<40 ppm-years

6

3.3 (0.8–13.1)

 

40–99 ppm-years

1

1.1 (0.1–11.1)

 

≥100 ppm-years

9

3.5 (0.9–13.2)

Yin et al., 1996a,b

Chinese factory workers, ever exposed

17

3.0 (1.0–13.0)

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Schnatter et al., 1996a

Male Canadian petroleum-distribution workers

 

 

0.00–0.49 ppm-years

4

1.00

 

0.50–7.99 ppm-years

3

1.21 (0.16–8.07)

 

8.00–19.99 ppm-years

1

1.14 (0.02–22.1)

 

20–219.8 ppm-years

0

0.0 (0.0–27.6)

Wong, 1987a,b

Male US chemical workers

5

0.91 (0.29–2.11)

 

Continuously exposed

3

1.13 (0.23–3.30)

 

Continuous exposure by duration

 

 

<5 years

1

0.65

 

5–14 years

1

1.56

 

≥15 years

1

2.18



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