Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Lundberg and Milatou-Smith, 1998

Male Swedish paint-industry workers, ever employed

 

Mortality

4

3.8 (1.0–9.7)

Blair et al., 1998

Aircraft-maintenance workers in Utah

 

 

Any solvent

 

 

Males

19

1.3 (0.4–3.8)

 

Females

5

1.9 (0.4–8.2)

Fu et al., 1996

Shoe-manufacturing workers

 

 

English cohort

7

0.99 (0.40–2.05)

 

Probable solvent exposure

3

1.15 (0.24–3.36)

 

High solvent exposure

1

5.26 (0.13–29.30)

 

Florence cohort

3

3.70 (0.76–10.80)

 

Probable solvent exposure

1

2.17 (0.05–12.10)

 

High solvent exposure

1

2.44 (0.06–13.60)

Case-Control Studies

Demers et al., 1993

Residents of four US states

 

 

Painters

31

2.1 (1.2–3.6)

 

Employed <10 years

15

1.4 (0.6–2.8)

 

Employed ≥10 years

16

4.1 (1.8–10.4)

 

Printing machine operators

4

0.6 (0.1–2.0)

Eriksson and Karlsson, 1992

Residents of northern Sweden

 

Organic solvents (occupational), ever used

21

0.50 (0.30–0.80)b

 

Duration of exposure (occupational)

 

 

≤5 years

NA

0.37 (0.09–1.48)b

 

6–20 years

NA

0.59 (0.28–1.25)b

 

≥21 years

NA

0.37 (0.26–0.74)b

 

Organic solvents (leisure use), ever used

43

1.22 (0.80–1.89)b

Morris et al., 1986

Residents of four US states

 

 

Ever exposed to:

 

 

Aldehydes or ketones

7

1.1 (0.4–3.6)

 

Aromatic hydrocarbons

16

0.8 (0.5–1.4)

 

Chlorinated hydrocarbons

70

1.0 (0.7–1.4)

 

Paints or solvents

39

1.8 (1.2–2.7)

NOTE: NA=not available.

a95% CI calculated by the committee with standard methods from the observed and expected numbers presented in the original study.

b90% CI reported.

ADULT LEUKEMIA

With the introduction of the eighth and ninth revisions of the ICD codes and an increased ability to identify subtypes of leukemia, epidemiologists could more easily identify specific hematopoietic cancers in their studies. However, in most of the studies reviewed, especially those conducted early, it was not possible to identify specific subtypes of adult leukemia. Furthermore, in the small cohort studies, there were often insufficient cases of any particular type of leukemia, so all subtypes were combined in the analyses to improve statistical power. In contrast with the literature on insecticide exposure, there were enough studies on the specific subtypes of leukemia to present findings according to the following five groups: adult leukemia



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