TABLE 6.39 Description of Case-Control Studies of Leukemia and Exposure to Organic Solvents


Description of Study Population

Number of Cases

Number of Controls

Relevant Exposure(s)

Determination of Exposure


Adjustment for Confounding

Viadana and Bross, 1972

White cases from the Tri-State Leukemia Survey, covering New York (New York City excluded), Baltimore, and Minnesota in 1959–1962; controls randomly selected from the same geographic areas

1345 leukemia


Painting work

Printing work

In-person interviews (direct or proxy) to assess occupational history (job titles)



Flodin et al., 1981

Deceased cases, identified through the records of the Linkoping University Hospital (Sweden) and parish registers, in 1972–1978; controls selected from parish registers, matched for age and sex

42 AML



Mailed questionnaire to next of kin to assess occupational exposures (self-reports)

Unadjusted OR


Bernard et al., 1984

Cases identified through registries and clinician reporting among residents of the Yorkshire Health Region, UK, with diagnosis in 1979–1981 and hematologic confirmation; controls selected from hospital inpatients, matched for age, sex, and geographic area

79 lymphoid leukemia




In-person interview to assess occupational history (job titles) and details of solvent and chemical contacts (self-reports)

Logistic regression

Sex, age

Malone et al., 1989

Cases, age less than 80 years, diagnosed in four US SEER study areas in 1977–1981; controls selected through RDD or area sampling, depending on the study area, and matched for sex, race, and age

427 CLL


Dry-cleaning industry work

Aromatic hydrocarbons


Interview (in-person or telephone) with standardized questionnaire to assess lifetime occupational and leisure exposure history (self-reports)

Logistic regression

Age, sex, race, education level, area of residence


Participation rates: 82.5% of cases, 83% of controls


Richardson et al., 1992

Cases, age 30 years or over, identified through hospital hematology departments in Paris and Creteil, France, in 1984–1988; hospital controls selected from other departments, matched for sex, age, ethnicity, and usual residence

185 acute leukemia




Other hydrocarbon solvents

Halogenated solvents

Oxygenated solvents

Interview with standardized questionnaire to assess lifetime occupational and leisure exposure history (self-reports) with solvent- exposure probability and level determined by industrial hygienist review

Conditional logistic regression

Matching variables, prior history of radiotherapy or chemotherapy

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