Reference

Study Population and Cancer Type

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Lazarov et al., 2000

Residents of Novi Sad, Yugoslavia, and London, England—AML

 

 

Solvents (multivariate analysis)

53

2.52 (1.45–4.39)

 

Possible exposure

24

2.28 (1.12–4.62)

 

Probable exposures

29

3.86 (1.83–8.14)

 

Painters and related workers

7

4.57 (1.29–16.14)

 

Paints

23

1.28 (0.68–2.43)

 

Oils

32

1.56 (0.87–2.81)

 

Machinery mechanics and fitters

12

4.03 (1.44–11.23)

Mele et al., 1994

Residents of Italy

 

 

Painters, ever employed

 

 

AML

4

3.2 (0.5–20.8)

 

ALL

4

4.7 (0.6–34.2)

 

Shoemakers, ever employed

4

2.4 (0.9–6.9)

 

AML

1

1.3 (0.2–10.2)

 

ALL

 

Richardson et al., 1992

Residents of Paris and Créteil, France—acute leukemia; ever exposed

 

 

Solvents, all exposure levels

71

1.1 (0.7–1.5)

 

Other hydrocarbon solvents, all exposure levels

28

1.0 (0.6–1.6)

 

High or medium exposure

11

0.9 (0.4–1.8)

 

Halogenated solvents, all exposure levels

44

1.1 (0.7–1.6)

 

High or medium exposure

23

1.0 (0.6–1.7)

 

Oxygenated solvents, all exposure levels

42

1.5 (1.0–2.4)

 

High or medium exposure

15

1.5 (0.7–2.7)

Flodin et al., 1981

Residents of Linköping, Sweden—AML

 

 

Solvents, ever exposed

11

6.3 (2.6–15.3)b

aRR and 95% CI calculated by the committee with standard methods from the observed and expected numbers presented in the original study.

b95% CI calculated by the committee with standard methods from the observed and expected numbers presented in the original study.

Epidemiologic Studies of Exposure to Organic Solvents and Chronic Leukemia

An association between exposure to benzene and risk of chronic leukemia was reported in several studies (Ireland et al., 1997: SMR=2.3, 95% CI=0.7–5.3; Rushton and Romaniuk, 1997: SMR=1.22, 95% CI=0.38–3.89 for 4.5–44.9 ppm-years; Yin et al., 1996a,b: SMR=2.6, 95% CI=0.7–16.9). No excess risks (OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.6–2.0) were observed for self-reported exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons (the class of solvents that includes benzene, toluene, and xylene) in a population-based case-control study of CLL (Malone et al., 1989). Except for one exposure level, the case-control study by Rushton and Romaniuk (1997) showed relative risks close to unity.

A case-control study of leukemia and preleukemia conducted in Italy found that shoemakers and painters were at high risk for CML (OR=4.5, 95% CI=1.6–13.0 for shoemakers; OR=7.6, 95% CI=1.5–39.8 for painters) (Mele et al., 1994). Positive associations between exposure to mixed solvents and CLL were found in a US study reporting previous exposures to paints (OR=1.4, 95% CI=0.8–2.2) and hobby painting (OR=1.4, 95% CI=0.9-



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