2.0), but no increased risks were found (OR=0.9) among those employed in the dry-cleaning industry (Malone et al., 1989).

The committee drew no conclusion on an association between exposure to benzene or unspecified mixtures of organic solvents and chronic leukemia. Table 6.42 identifies the studies reviewed by the committee on chronic leukemia. Unless indicated in the table, the study populations include both men and women.

TABLE 6.42 Selected Epidemiologic Studies—Chronic Leukemia and Exposure to Organic Solvents

Reference

Study Population and Cancer Type

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95 % CI)

Benzene

Cohort Studies—Mortality

Ireland et al., 1997

Male Monsanto plant workers in Sauget, IL

 

 

Production workers exposed to benzene (all leukemias)

5

2.3 (0.7–5.3)

 

CLL (exposure to benzene category)

 

 

<12 ppm-months

1

5.9 (0.1–32.6)

 

12–72 ppm-months

0

0.0 (0.0–24.7)

 

>72 ppm-months

1

6.7 (0.2–37.7)

Rushton and Romaniuk, 1997

Male UK petroleum marketing and distribution workers CLL (exposure to benzene)

 

<0.45 ppm-years

8

1

 

0.45–4.49 ppm-years

16

1.07 (0.40–2.86)

 

4.5–44.9 ppm-years

7

1.22 (0.38–3.89)

 

≥45 ppm-years

0

0

 

CML (exposure to benzene)

 

 

<0.45–4.49 ppm-years

9

1

 

4.5–44.9 ppm-years

2

0.76 (0.14–4.06)

 

≥45 ppm-years

0

Yin et al., 1996a,b

Chinese factory workers—CML

 

 

Any exposure

9

2.6 (0.7–16.9)

Case-Control Study

Malone et al., 1989

US residents of four areas—CLL

 

 

Aromatic hydrocarbons, any exposure

26

1.1 (0.6–2.0)

Unspecified Mixtures of Organic Solvents

Case-Control Studies

Mele et al., 1994

Residents of Italy

 

 

Painters, ever employed—CML

5

7.6 (1.5–39.8)

 

Shoemakers, ever employed—CML

6

4.5 (1.6–13.0)

Malone et al., 1989

US residents of four areas—CLL

 

 

Paints, ever exposed

26

1.4 (0.8–2.2)

 

Dry-cleaning industry, ever employed

14

0.9 (0.4–1.8)

 

Hobby painting, ever exposed

48

1.4 (0.9–2.0)

Epidemiologic Studies on Exposure to Organic Solvents and Lymphatic Leukemia

Several studies of lymphatic leukemia examined associations with exposure to benzene. Positive associations between lymphatic leukemia and exposure to benzene were observed in several studies (Bernard et al., 1984; Wilcosky et al., 1984), but there was considerable variability in the estimates.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement