Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Wolf et al., 1981

US rubber workers

 

 

Low exposure

11

0.8

 

Medium exposure

16

1.2

 

High exposure

5

1.6

McMichael et al., 1975

Male US rubber workers

 

 

All exposure levels

NA

3.25

 

Low exposure

NA

2.50

 

Medium exposure

NA

2.00

 

High exposure

NA

5.50

 

p-trend<0.025

Case-Control Study

Bernard et al., 1984

Male residents of Yorkshire, England

 

 

Solvents (excluding benzene use)

NA

1.56 (0.47–5.17)

NOTE: NA=not available.

Epidemiologic Studies of Exposure to Organic Solvents and Hairy Cell Leukemia

In a study by Clavel and colleagues (1995, 1996, 1998), no excess risks were observed between exposure to benzene and hairy cell leukemia. In another case-control study, exposure to benzene was associated with risk of hairy cell leukemia (Staines and Cartwright, 1993), although CIs included unity (OR=2.00, 95% CI=0.50–8.00).

Nordström and colleagues (1998) found an association between hairy cell leukemia and self-reported exposures to white spirit (or naphtha) (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.2–3.4), acetone (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.3–4.3), and trichloroethylene (OR=1.5, 95% CI=0.7–3.3).

Clavel and colleagues (1995, 1998) inquired about exposure to organic solvents and found little evidence of an association between hairy cell leukemia and exposure to solvent mixtures or occupations involving exposure to organic solvents, such as painting, spray painting, printing, and laundry and dry cleaning. Staines and Cartwright (1993) also did not find strong evidence of an association with organic solvents (OR=1.45, 95% CI=0.58–3.66), while Nordström and colleagues (1998) found positive associations between hairy cell leukemia and exposure to all solvents (OR=1.5, 95% CI=0.99–2.3) and working with paints (OR=4.3, 95% CI=1.8–10.3).

No conclusions were drawn on an association between exposure to specific solvents or unspecified mixtures of organic solvents and hairy cell leukemia. Table 6.44 identifies the studies related to hairy cell leukemia and solvent exposure. Unless indicated in the table, the study populations include both men and women.

TABLE 6.44 Selected Epidemiologic Studies—Hairy Cell Leukemia and Exposure to Organic Solvents

Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Benzene

Case-Control Studies

Clavel et al., 1996

Male residents of France

 

 

All exposures to benzene

34

0.8 (0.5–1.2)a

 

Pure exposure to benzene

2

0.7 (0.1–4.1)a

 

Painters (exposed to benzene)

4

0.8 (0.2–3.3)a

Staines and Cartwright, 1993

Residents of Yorkshire and Trent, UK

 

Benzene, any exposure for any duration

4

2.00 (0.50–8.00)



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