TABLE 6.47 Description of Case-Control Studies of Childhood Cancer and Exposure to Organic Solvents

Reference

Description of Study Population

Number of Cases

Number of Controls

Relevant Exposure(s)

Determination of Exposure

Analysis

Adjustment for Confounding

Lowengart et al., 1987

Cases, age 10 years and under, identified from the Los Angeles County Cancer Surveillance Program in 1980–1984; controls selected from friends of case children or through RDD, matched on age, sex, and race (including native Spanish-speaking Caucasians)

123 leukemia

123

Trichloroethylene

MEK

Chlorinated solvents

Telephone interview with questionnaire to assess parental occupational and exposure history (self-reports)

Matched pairs

Matching variables

 

Participation rate: 79% of cases

 

Buckley et al., 1989

Cases, age under 18 years, selected from the Childrens Cancer Study Group with diagnosis in 1980–1984; controls selected through RDD, matched for date of birth and race

204 ANLL

204

Solvents

Telephone interviews used to assess lifetime occupational history (job titles) and exposure contacts of parents

Conditional logistic regression

Matching variables

Feingold et al., 1992

Cases, age 14 years or under, identified through the Colorado Central Cancer Registry of Denver residents diagnosed in 1976–1983 with almost complete histologic confirmation; controls selected through RDD, matched for age, sex, and telephone exchange area

59 ALL

48 brain

222

Benzene

Diethylene glycol

Solvents

In-person or telephone interview with questionnaire to assess parental occupational history (job-industry titles); job-exposure matrix used to assess exposures

Mantel-Haenszel

Father’s education

 

Participation rates: 70.8% of cases, 79.9% of controls

 

Cordier et al., 1997

Cases, age 15 years or under, identified in centers in Paris, Milan, and Valencia with partial histologic verification (72–87% complete); population controls selected from census information or local health-service records, depending on location, selectively matched for year of birth, sex, and area of residence

251 brain

601

Solvents

In-person interviews to assess parental occupations (job titles) held from 5 years before the child’s birth; job-exposure matrix used to assess exposures

Unconditional logistic regression

Child’s age, sex, exposure to tobacco and ionizing radiation, mother’s age, years of schooling

Olshan et al., 1999

Cases, age under 19 years, selected from the Childrens Cancer Group and Pediatric Oncology Group with diagnosis in 1992–1996; controls selected through RDD, matched for date of birth

504 neuroblastoma

504

Painter (paternal occupation)

Telephone interview to assess parental occupational and exposure history (job-industry titles)

Conditional logistic regression

Maternal race, maternal age, maternal education, household income

 

Participation rates: 73% of cases, 74% of controls

 



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