Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

Case-Control Studies

Shu et al., 1999

Children diagnosed through the Children’s Cancer Group

 

 

Maternal preconception exposure, any solvents

93

1.8 (1.3–2.5)

 

Chlorinated solvents

2

1.8 (0.2–20.8)

 

Nonchlorinated organic solvents

22

2.0 (1.0–4.2)

 

Benzene

7

0.7 (0.3–1.8)

 

Trichloroethylene

9

1.8 (0.6–5.2)

 

Tetrachloroethylene

3

1.4 (0.2–8.6)

 

Methyl ethyl ketone

9

0.8 (0.3–1.9)

 

Toluene

5

1.5 (0.6–3.8)

 

Naphtha

2

0.5 (0.1–3.0)

 

Paint remover

16

2.5 (1.0–5.9)

 

Paternal preconception exposure, any solvents

490

1.1 (0.9–1.3)

 

Chlorinated solvents

9

1.0 (0.4–2.5)

 

Nonchlorinated organic solvents

61

1.3 (0.8–1.9)

 

Benzene

74

1.2 (0.8–1.2)

 

Trichloroethylene

100

1.1 (0.8–1.5)

 

Tetrachloroethylene

21

0.8 (0.5–1.5)

 

Methyl Ethyl Ketone

107

1.1 (0.8–1.5)

 

Toluene

82

1.1 (0.8–1.5)

 

Xylene

67

1.2 (0.8–1.8)

 

Naphtha

62

1.2 (0.8–1.7)

 

Paint remover

120

1.0 (0.7–1.3)

Feingold et al., 1992

Children in the Denver, CO, area

 

 

Paternal occupational exposure year before birth

 

 

Solvents

3

1.7 (0.4–8.2)

 

Benzene

9

1.6 (0.5–5.8)

 

Diethylene glycol

7

1.4 (0.4–4.5)

Acute Nonlymphocytic Leukemia

Case-Control Study

Buckley et al., 1989

Children diagnosed through the Children’s Cancer Group

 

 

Paternal preconception exposure, solvents

NA

2.2 (p<0.05)

NOTE: NA=not applicable.

Epidemiologic Studies of Exposure to Organic Solvents and Neuroblastoma

Olshan and colleagues (1999) reported an increased risk of neuroblastoma in children whose fathers were painters (OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.9–4.8); this was the most relevant of the 73 paternal occupations listed for solvent exposure. In a followup study, the investigators used a job-exposure matrix to evaluate maternal and paternal occupational exposure to 65 chemical compounds or broad categories of substances (De Roos et al., 2001). As reviewed by an industrial hygienist, neuroblastoma risk was not markedly increased based on maternal exposures to halogenated hydrocarbons (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.2–2.1), to volatile hydrocarbons (OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.7–2.1), to acetone (OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.4–2.8), or to alcohols (OR=1.0, 95% CI=0.5–2.1). However, for paternal exposures, risk estimates were higher: volatile hydrocarbons (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.0–2.1), alcohols (OR=1.8, 95% CI=0.9–3.3), benzene (OR=2.0, 95% CI=0.4–10.3), methyl ethyl ketone (OR=1.4, 95% CI=0.5–3.8), naphtha (OR=1.4, 95% CI=0.4–5.9), and xylene (OR=1.4, 95% CI=0.5–4.3). Paternal exposure to acetone,



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