trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, methylene chloride, and chloroform did not show increased risks.

Summary and Conclusion

The two studies identified were well-conducted. They evaluated a large number of neuroblastoma cases and possible exposures, while considering the possibility of recall bias. However, other corroborating studies are needed to clarify whether an association exists. Table 6.49 identifies the study reviewed by the committee for neuroblastoma.

The committee concludes, from its assessment of the epidemiologic literature, that there is inadequate/insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists between either maternal or paternal preconception exposure to solvents under review and neuroblastoma.

TABLE 6.49 Selected Epidemiologic Studies—Childhood Neuroblastoma and Exposure to Organic Solvents

Reference

Study Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Neuroblastoma

Case-Control Studies

De Roos et al., 2001

Children registered at Children’s Cancer Group or Pediatric Oncology Group hospitals

 

 

Occupational exposure in the 2 years before child’s birtha

 

 

Maternal exposure

 

 

Halogenated hydrocarbons

6

0.7 (0.2–2.1)

 

Volatile hydrocarbons

27

1.2 (0.7–2.1)

 

Acetone

9

1.1 (0.4–2.8)

 

Alcohols

14

1.0 (0.5–2.1)

 

Paternal exposure

 

 

Halogenated hydrocarbons

34

0.9 (0.5–1.5)

 

Trichloroethylene

9

0.9 (0.3–2.5)

 

Volatile hydrocarbons

122

1.5 (1.0–2.1)

 

Acetone

23

0.9 (0.5–1.7)

 

Benzene

5

2.0 (0.4–10.3)

 

Methyl ethyl ketone

12

1.4 (0.5–3.8)

 

Xylene

10

1.4 (0.5–4.3)

 

Tetrachloroethylene

4

0.5 (0.1–1.7)

 

Methylene chloride

4

0.7 (0.2–2.8)

 

Chloroform

3

1.2 (0.2–7.5)

 

Alcohols

49

1.8 (0.9–3.3)

 

Naphtha

11

1.4 (0.4–5.9)

Olshan et al., 1999

Children registered at Children’s Cancer Group or Pediatric Oncology Group hospitals

 

 

Paternal occupation—painter

18

2.1 (0.9–4.8)

aIndustrial hygienist-reviewed exposure information.

Epidemiologic Studies of Exposure to Organic Solvents and Brain Cancer

A European case-control study of brain cancer and parental occupation found that “high” maternal occupational exposure to solvents was strongly associated with an increased risk of brain cancer (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.2–4.9) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) (OR=



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