Dosemeci M, Stewart PA, Blair A. 1990. Three proposals for retrospective, semiquantitative exposure assessments and their comparison with the other assessment methods. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 5(1):52–59.


Ellwood JM. 1998. Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Evans AS. 1976. Causation and disease: The Henle-Koch postulates revisited. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 49(2):175–195.


Gérin M, Siemiatycki J, Kemper H, Begin D. 1985. Obtaining occupational exposure histories in epidemiologic case-control studies. Journal of Occupational Medicine 27(6):420–426.


Hennekens CH, During JE. 1987. Epidemiology in Medicine. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company.

Hill AB. 1965. The environment and disease: Association or causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 58:295–300.

Hinds MW, Kolonel LN, Lee J. 1985. Application of a job-exposure matrix to a case-control study of lung cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 75(2):193–197.

Hoel DG, Ron E, Carter R, Mabuchi K. 1993. Influence of death certificate errors on cancer mortality trends. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 85(13):1063–1068.


IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1991. Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 1994a. Adverse Events Associated with Childhood Vaccines: Evidence Bearing on Causality. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 1994b. Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 1996. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1996. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 1999. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 1998. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

IOM. 2000. Clearing the Air: Asthma and Indoor Air Exposures. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


Joffe M. 1992. Validity of exposure data derived from a structured questionnaire. American Journal of Epidemiology 135(5):564–570.


Kromhout H, Heedrik D, Dalerup LM, Kromhout D. 1992. Performance of two general job-exposure matrices in a study of lung cancer morbidity in the Zutphen cohort. American Journal of Epidemiology 136(6):698–711.


Magnani C, Coggon D, Osmond C, Acheson ED. 1987. Occupation and five cancers: A case-control study using death-certificates. British Journal of Industrial Medicine 44(11):769–776.

Monson RR. 1990. Occupational Epidemiology. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.


NRC (National Research Council). 1991. Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants: Advances and Opportunities. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2002. 10th Report of Carcinogens. Research Triangle Park, NC: NTP.


Olsen J. 1988. Limitations in the use of job exposure matrices. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine 16(4):205–208.


Rosenberg J, Katz EA, Cone JE. 1997. Solvents. In: LaDou, J ed. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2nd ed. Stamford, Connecticut: Appleton and Lange. Pp. 483–513.

Rothman KJ. 1993. Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(Suppl 4):19–21.

Rothman KJ, Greenland S, eds. 1998. Modern Epidemiology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.


Siemiatycki J, Dewar R, Richardson L. 1989. Costs and statistical power associated with five methods of collecting occupation information for population-based case-control studies. American Journal of Epidemiology 130(6):1236–1246.

Siemiatycki J. 1991. Risk Factors for Cancer in the Workplace. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Stewart PA, Stewart WF. 1994a. Occupational case-control studies: I. Collecting information on work histories and work-related exposures. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 26(3):297–312.

Stewart PA, Stewart WF. 1994b. Occupational case-control studies: II. Recommendations for exposure assessment. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 26(3):313–326.

Stewart PA, Blair A, Cubit DA, Bales RE, Kaplan SA, Ward J, Gaffey W, O’Berg MT, Walrath J. 1986. Estimating historical exposures to formaldehyde in a retrospective mortality study. Applied Industrial Hygiene 1(1):34–41.

Susser M. 1973. Causal Thinking in the Health Sciences: Concepts and Strategies of Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement