power to detect actual effects. The few studies that examined maternal or paternal preconception exposures did not find clear and consistent evidence of an association with any type of malformation.

The committee concludes, from its assessment of the epidemiologic literature, that there is inadequate/insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists between maternal or paternal preconception exposure to the insecticides under review and congenital malformations.

TABLE 8.5 Selected Epidemiologic Studies: Congenital Malformations and Exposure to Insecticides

Reference

Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Maternal Exposure

NTDs and CNS Anomalies

Shaw et al., 1999a

Maternal exposure 1 month before to 3 months after conception

 

 

Use of insect foggers

20

1.1 (0.6–2.0)

 

Professionally applied pesticides in the home

53

1.6 (1.1–2.5)

 

Mothers applying pesticides in the home

54

1.1 (0.8–1.7)

 

Insect-repellent use

16

1.0 (0.6–1.9)

 

Maternal occupational exposure likely

3

0.9 (0.2–3.8)

Shaw et al., 1999b

Occupational and hobby-related exposures 3 months before conception through pregnancy

 

 

Carbamates

6

1.2 (0.38–3.7)

 

Organophosphates

17

1.2 (0.60–2.5)

 

Pyrethrins

7

1.0 (0.36–2.8)

 

Insecticides

40

1.3 (0.81–2.1)

Heart Malformations

Loffredo et al., 2001

Maternal exposure and infants born with transposition of the great arteries

 

 

Insecticides—critical period

32

1.5 (0.9–2.6)

 

Insecticides—4–6 months before pregnancy

28

1.6 (0.9–2.9)

Shaw et al., 1999b

Maternal exposure 1 month before to 3 months after conception

 

 

Mothers applying pesticides during gardening

12

3.1 (1.3–7.3)

 

Insect-repellent use

25

2.2 (1.3–3.9)

 

More than one pet-flea collar product used

53

1.2 (0.8–1.8)

 

Insect-fogger use

12

0.8 (0.4–1.7)

Paternal Exposure

Multiple or Other Malformations

Garcia et al., 1998

Paternal exposure for infants born in agricultural areas of Spain

 

 

Malathion

6

0.30 (0.06–1.43)

 

Carbamates

10

0.81 (0.30–2.22)

 

Organophosphates

31

0.77 (0.38–1.58)

Lin et al., 1994

Parental exposure for infants born with limb reduction defects in New York state

 

 

Paternal exposure to insecticides

23

1.0 (0.5–1.7)

 

Maternal exposure to insecticides

13

0.7 (0.4–1.5)



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