The committee concludes, from its assessment of the epidemiologic literature, that there is inadequate/insufficient evidence to determine whether an association exists between maternal or paternal preconception exposure to the specific organic solvents under review or solvent mixtures and congenital malformations.

TABLE 8.6 Selected Epidemiologic Studies: Congenital Malformations and Exposure to Organic Solvents

Reference

Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Maternal exposure

Neural tube defects

Shaw et al., 1999

Occupational and hobby-related exposure (3 months before conception to 3 months after conception)

 

 

 

Aliphatic alcohols

143

0.87 (0.67–1.1)

 

Aliphatic chlorinated hydrocarbons

26

1.1 (0.62–1.9)

 

Glycol ethers and derivatives

75

0.93 (0.66–1.3)

 

Glycols

26

1.3 (0.71–2.3)

 

Ketones

21

0.71 (0.41–1.3)

Spina bifida

Blatter et al., 1996

Occupational exposure (2 weeks before to 6 weeks after conception)

 

 

All organic solvents

29

0.9 (0.6–1.6)

Gastroschisis

Torfs et al., 1996

Children born with gastroschisis

 

 

Maternal exposure from preconception through first trimester

 

 

All solvents, low exposure

13

2.28 (0.99–5.24)

 

All solvents, high exposure

15

3.84 (1.61–9.17)

 

Aromatic hydrocarbons, high exposure

9

4.74 (1.45–15.49)

 

Glycols

6

2.00 (0.65–6.20)

Paternal exposure

Spina bifida

Blatter et al., 1997

Paternal occupational exposure (3 months before conception to 1 month after conception)

 

 

Solvents

29

0.7 (0.4–1.1)

 

Low

19

0.6 (0.4–1.1)

 

Moderate or high

10

0.9 (0.4–2.0)

REFERENCES

Abell A, Ernst E, Bonde JP. 2000a. Semen quality and sexual hormones in greenhouse workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 26(6):492–500.

Abell A, Juul S, Bonde JPE. 2000b. Time to pregnancy among female greenhouse workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 26(2):131–136.

Agnesi R, Valentini F, Mastrangelo G. 1997. Risk of spontaneous abortion and maternal exposure to organic solvents in the shoe industry. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 69(5):311–316.

Ahlborg G Jr. 1990. Pregnancy outcome among women working in laundries and dry-cleaning shops using tetrachloroethylene. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 17(5):567–575.

Ahlborg G Jr, Hogstedt C, Bodin L, Barany S. 1989. Pregnancy outcome among working women. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 15(3):227–233.

Arbuckle TE, Lin Z, Mery LS. 2001. An exploratory analysis of the effect of pesticide exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion in an Ontario farm population. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(8):851–857.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement