TABLE 9.4 Selected Epidemiologic Studies: Renal Disease and Exposure to Organic Solvents

Reference

Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk (95% CI)

Glomerulonephritis

Solvents

Case-Control Studies

Ravnskov et al., 1979

Patients in Sweden

50 total cases

3.9 (1.9–8.1)

van der Laan, 1980

Patients in the Netherlands

50 total cases

1.1 (0.4–3.1)

Stengel et al., 1995

Male patients in France

298 total cases

 

 

Low solvent exposure

21%a

1.0 (0.6–1.6)

 

High solvent exposure

18%a

1.2 (0.7–2.1)

 

Chlorinated solvents

4%a

0.6 (0.2–1.5)

 

Oxygenated solvents

6%a

1.2 (0.5–3.0)

 

Aliphatics

10%a

2.0 (0.9–4.3)

 

Aromatics

5%a

1.6 (0.5–4.6)

 

Solvent mixtures

8%a

0.8 (0.4–1.7)

Harrington et al., 1989

Patients in the United Kingdom

50 total cases

1.0 (0.16–6.3)

Sesso et al., 1990

Patients in Brazil

17 total cases

 

 

Organic solvents

52.9%a

5.0 (1.14–22.00)

 

Overall hydrocarbons

58.5%a

2.8 (0.71–11.07)

Porro et al., 1992

Patients in Italy

60 total cases

 

 

Total solvent exposures

NA

3.50 (1.18–12.18)

 

Occupational

NA

4.25 (1.18–16.36)

 

Nonoccupational

NA

1.71 (0.57–4.94)

Hydrocarbons

Case-Control Studies

Asal et al., 1996

Patients in Oklahoma

 

 

Hydrocarbon exposure

(<100 ppm vs ≥100 ppm)

132

1.39 (0.94–2.04)

Yaqoob et al., 1992

Patients in the United Kingdom

 

 

Greasing, degreasing agents

NA

5.3b (p<0.01)

End-Stage Renal Disease

Solvents

Case-Control Studies

Steenland et al., 1990

Patients in Michigan

 

 

All solvents

124

1.51 (1.03–2.22)

 

Solvents used in paints and glues

38

1.01 (0.58–1.74)

 

Solvents used as cleaning agents or degreasers

94

2.50 (1.56–3.95)

 

Solvents used in other processes

17

1.05 (0.44–2.48)

Chronic Renal Failure

Hydrocarbons

Case-Control Studies

Nuyts et al., 1995

Patients in Belgium

 

 

Oxygenated hydrocarbons

25

5.45 (1.84–16.2)

NOTE: NA=not available.

aPercentage of total cases.

bRelative risk



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