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Hazardous Waste Site Management: Water Quality Issues Report on a Colloquium Sponsored by the Water Science and Technology Board February ~ 9-20, ~ 987 Co/Ioquium 3 of a Senes Water Science and Technology Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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NationalAcademy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D. C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of scienec and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academica and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by The Ford Foundation and agencies providing general support for activities of the Water Science and Technology Board, including the Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agency, National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Energy, and U.S. Geological Survey. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hazardous waste site management: water quality issues: report on a colloquium / sponsored by the Water Science and Technology Board. p. cm. Bibliography: p. Includes index. ISBN 0-309-03790-5 1. Hazardous waste sites-United States{'ongresses. 2. Water quality management- United States-Congresses. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Water Science and Technology Board. TD811.5.H435 1987 363.7' 28-dc 19 87-31311 Printed in the United States of America

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P11WCIPAI CONTEmUTOllS EDWIN F. BARTH Ill, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. HALINA SZEdNWALD BROWN, Clark University JAMES M. DAVIDSON, University of Florida RICHARD M. DOWD, R. M. Dowd & Company, Washington, D.C. RONALD R. ESAU, Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Jose, California LINDA E. GREER, Environmental Defense Fund, Washington, D.C. THOMAS M. HELLMAN, General Electric, Fairfield, Connecticut DAVID J. LEU, Department of Health Services, Sacramento, California ROBERT G. TARDIFF, Environ Corporation, Washington, D.C. STEED COMMITTEE MICHAEL KAVANAUGH (Chairman), James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineers, Oakland, California MARY P. ANDERSON, University of Wisconsin-Madison RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia LESTER B. LAVE, Carnegie-Mellon University RAPPOlITEUlIS RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia LESTER B. LAVE, Carnegie-Mellon University JAMES W. MERGER, GeoTrans, Inc., Herndon, Virginia GORDON ROBECK, Water Consultant, Laguna Hills, California -- 111

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PllOVOCATEUllS JOAN BERKOWITZ, Risk Science International, Washington, D.C. WILLIAM CIBULAS, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia NORBERT DEE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C. LEO M. ElSEL, Wright Water Engineers, Denver, Colorado JOEL HIRSCHHORN, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C. DAVID W. MILLER, Geraghty & Miller, Inc., Plainview, New York ISHWAR P. MURARKA, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California TOBY PAGE, Brown University COLLOQUIUM COOlIDINATO:EtS SHEILA D. DAVID, Program Officer CAROLE B. CARSTATER, Program Assistant JEANNE AQUlLINO, Production Assistant 1V

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WATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOlOGY BOARD JOHN J. BOLAND (Chairman), The Johns Hopkins University MARY P. ANDERSON, University of Wisconsin-Madison (through 6/30/87) STEPHEN BURGES, University of Washington PAUL BUSCH, Malcolm Pirnie Engineers, White Plains, New York (through 6/30/87) RICHARD A. CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation, South CharIeston,West Virginia JAMES M. DAVIDSON, University of Florida LEO M. ElSEL, Wright Water Engineers, Denver, Colorado (through 6/30/87) HARRY 1.. HAMILTON, JR., State University of New York at Albany JAMES HEANEY, University of Florida R. KEITH HIGGINSON, Higginson-Barnett, Bountiful, Utah MICHAEL KAVANAUGH, James M. Montgomery Consulting Engineers, Oakland, California LESTER B. I,AVE, Carnegie-Mellon University LUNA B. I`EOPOLD, University of California, Berkeley G. RICHARD MARZOI.F, Kansas State University JAMES W. MERGER, GeoTrans, Inc., Herndon, Virginia DAVID W. MILLER, Geraghty & Miller, Inc., Plainview, New York (through 6/30/87) GORDON ROBECK, Water Consultant, Laguna Hills, California PATRICIA ROSENFIELD, The Carnegie Corporation of New York EDITH BROWN WEISS, Georgetown University Law Center Staff STEPHEN D. PARKER, Director SHEILA D. DAVID, Staff Officer PATRICK W. HOLDEN, Staff Officer WENDY I,. MEI,GIN, Staff Officer CAROLE B. CARSTATER, Staff Assistant JEANNE AQUlLINO, Administrative Assistant RENEE A. HAWKINS, Senior Secretary ANITA HAI`I,, Senior Secretary v

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Preface In 1985 the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) in- augurated a colloquium series, "Emerging Issues in Water Science and Technology," to focus debate and the attention of the scien- tific and engineering community on important issues in the field. Drought Management and Its Impact on Prolix Water Systems, the report of the first colloquium, was published in March 1986, followed by the report of the second colloquium, National Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment, in February 1987. The third colloquium, held on February 1~20, 1987, addressed the emerging scientific, engineering, and institutional issues associated with set- ting cleanup levels at hazardous waste sites, a major public policy question that is often articulated as "How clean is clean?" The nation's regulatory agencies are faced with the difficult task of defining target cleanup levels for contaminated soil or ground water. A number of approaches have been used: setting cleanup levels at background, allowing some level of contamination to remain, and taking no action whatsoever. Regulatory agencies must also determine the level of resources required to reduce or eliminate risk to humans and the environment, an effort that in- volves the use of a variety of scientific and technical tools in making these risk management decisions and the addressing of a number of nonquantitative societal issues. These tasks have important implications for both the health risks of the American population and the cost of remediation at the diverse sites currently being . V11

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e ~ V111 PREFA CE evaluated to deterrn~ne the nature and extent of contamination. As a result, the setting of target cleanup levels for these sites is quite controversial. WSTB's third colloquium, entitled "Hazardous Waste Site Management: Water Quality Issues," provided a forum in which to consider the current limits of the available scientific and technical data base and to identify and debate the nonquantitative issues from the differing perspectives of the affected parties. A steering committee of board members, working closely with WSTB staff, created and organized the colloquium format. Nine papers were presented by recognized experts affiliated with federal and state regulatory agencies, environmental and citizens groups, and industries that generate, store, or dispose of hazardous waste. The presenters included scientists and regulators involved in set- ting cleanup levels, as well as the affected parties. The preparation of the papers was carefully monitored by the steering committee through the review of preliminary outlines and manuscripts in progress. Provocateurs were selected to stimulate debate and discussion after the authors presented highlights from their papers. The 60 attendees participated actively in various workshops that evaluated the roles of hydrogeology, engineering, and risk assessment/toxicology, and discussed alternative regula- tory strategies for setting cleanup levels at hazardous waste sites. Written summaries from the workshops are presented in this re- port along with statements made by the provocateurs during the question-and-answer periods. The report has two major sections: an overview and the back- ground papers by individual authors. The colloquium chairman, Michael Kavanaugh, prepared the overview based on a review of the background papers and consideration of the presentations and workshop discussions. The entire report has been read by a group other than the authors, but only the overview has been subjected to the report review criteria established by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The background papers have been reviewed for factual correctness. To preserve the individual perspectives encouraged by the steering committee as part of the colloquium format, however, the conclusions, rec- ommendations, and findings arrived at in the background papers have not been exposed to the intensive evaluation undergone by the overview.

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Ibe WSIB grste~lly sckn~dges the generous contrlbu- tlons ~ time and expertise ~ the coNoqulum partlclp~nts. Specl~1 tanks me extended to those hobo made Irma present~lons, acted as pr~ocateurs to stimulate dlscusslon, or served ~ rappor- teurs in guiding the worksbops. ~ is hoped that the discussions presented here w1D stl~lste new lade and research and generate actlon by tbose lovolved ln tbe complex w~er qushty ~sues ralsed ln tbe remedl~tlon ~ b~zardous w~te shes.

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Contents OVERVIEW, by Michael Kavanaugh, Chairman ISSUE PAPERS AND PROVOCATEURS' COMMENTS 1. S ETTING ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES: A BREAK F ROM THE PAST OR A CONTINUUM? Keynote address by Richard M. Dowd 2. ESTABLISHING AND MEETING GROUND WATER PROTECTION GOALS IN THE SUPERFUND PROGRAM, by Edwin F. Barth Ill, William Hanson, and Elizabeth A. Shaw PROVOCATEUR'S COMMENTS by doe! Hirschhorn 3. SOME APPROACHES TO SETTING CLEANUP GOALS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES, by Halina SzeJnwald Brown 34 PROVOCATEUR'S COMMENTS by David Miller 4. THE CALIFORNIA SITE MITIGATION DECISION TREE PROCESS: SOLVING THE "How CLEAN SHOULD CLEAN BE?~' DILEMMA, by David ]. Lea and Paul W. Nadiey PROVOCATEUR'S COMMENTS by Joan Berkowitz How CLEAN IS CLEAN? THE NEED FOR ACTION, by Thomas M. Heliman and Deborah A. Hawkins PROVOCATEUR'S COMMENTS by Toby Page 1 11 13 22 X1 67 98

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e X11 6. HOW CLEAN IS CLEAN? AN ENVIRONMENTALIST PERSPECTIVE, by Linda E. Greer PROVOCATEUR'S COMMENTS by Leo M. Eise! 7. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION ISSUES IN SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA: A PERSPECTIVE, by Ronald R. Esau and D. ]. Chesterman PROVOCATEUR'S COMMENTS by Norbert Dee 8. USING MODELS TO SOLVE GROUND WATER QUALITY PROBLEMS, by dames M. Davidson and P. S. C. Rao 139 P. ROVO CATEUR ' S C OMMENTS by Ishwar P. Murarka 9. ESTIMATING HEALTH RISKS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE S ITES: D ECIS IONS AND C HOIC ES D ESPITE UNCERTAINTY, by Robert G. Tardiff and Michael Cough PROVO CATEUR ' S C OMMENTS by William Cibulas RAPPORTEURS' REPORTS RISK ASSESSMENT/TOXICOLOGY WORKSHOP, Lester B. Lave HYDROGEOLOGY WORKSHOP, James W. Mercer ENGINEERING WORKSHOP, Richard A. Conway REGULATORY STRATEGIES WORKSHOP, Gordon Ro beck CONTENTS 110 120 APPENDIXES A. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PRINCIPAL CONTRIBUTORS B. COLLOQUIUM ATTENDEES INDEX 152 177 178 183 186 191 195 199 203