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Exploration of the Seas: Interim Report Exploration of the Seas Interim Report Committee on Exploration of the Seas Ocean Studies Board Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Exploration of the Seas: Interim Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 56-DKNA-1-95107 and 56-DGNA-1-00001 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This paper is funded “in part” by a contract from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies. International Standard Book Number 0-309-0-309-08631-0 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Exploration of the Seas: Interim Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council www.national-academies.org
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Exploration of the Seas: Interim Report COMMITTEE ON EXPLORATION OF THE SEAS JOHN ORCUTT (Chair), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California SHIRLEY A. POMPONI (Vice-Chair), Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida TUNDI AGARDY, Sound Seas, Bethesda, Maryland GEORGE F. BASS, Texas A&M University, College Station EARL H. DOYLE, Shell Oil (ret.), Sugar Land, Texas TERRY GARCIA, National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C. BRUCE GILMAN, Sonsub Inc. (ret.), Houston, Texas SUSAN HUMPHRIS, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts ISAO KOIKE, University of Tokyo, Japan RICHARD LUTZ, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey MARCIA MCNUTT, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California JOHN NORTON MOORE, University of Virginia School of Law, Charlottesville WALTER PITMAN III, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, New York JÖRN THIEDE, Foundation for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany VICTOR M. VICENTE-VIDAL LORANDI, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Morelos, Mexico Staff JENNIFER MERRILL, Program Officer MORGAN GOPNIK, Director JODI BACHIM, Senior Project Assistant
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Exploration of the Seas: Interim Report OCEAN STUDIES BOARD NANCY RABALAIS (Chair), Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES COLEMAN, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge LARRY CROWDER, Duke University, Beaufort, North Carolina RICHARD B. DERISO, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, La Jolla, California EARL DOYLE, Shell Oil (ret.), Sugar Land, Texas ROBERT DUCE, Texas A&M University, College Station WAYNE R. GEYER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts MIRIAM KASTNER, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California RALPH S. LEWIS, Connecticut Geological Survey, Hartford JULIAN P. MCCREARY, JR., University of Hawaii, Honolulu JACQUELINE MICHEL, Research Planning, Inc., Columbus, South Carolina SCOTT NIXON, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett JON G. SUTINEN, University of Rhode Island, Kingston NANCY TARGETT, University of Delaware, Lewes Staff MORGAN GOPNIK, Director SUSAN ROBERTS, Senior Program Officer DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer JOANNE BINTZ, Program Officer JENNIFER MERRILL, Program Officer TERRY SCHAEFER, Program Officer ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Officer JOHN DANDELSKI, Research Associate SHIREL SMITH, Administrative Associate JODI BACHIM, Senior Project Assistant NANCY CAPUTO, Senior Project Assistant DENISE GREENE, Senior Project Assistant SARAH CAPOTE, Project Assistant BYRON MASON, Project Assistant JULIE PULLEY, Project Assistant
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Exploration of the Seas: Interim Report
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Exploration of the Seas: Interim Report ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report was greatly enhanced by the participants of the three workshops held as part of this study. The Committee would first like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at the meetings: Joe Baker, Patricio Bernal, Steven Bohlen, Bryndis Brandsdottir, Harry Breidahl, Mario Caceres, Tommy Dickey, Rene Drucker-Colin, Sylvia Earle, Paul Egerton, John Field, Montserrat Gorina-Ysern, J. Frederick Grassle, Jeremy Green, James Greenwood, Stephen Hammond, Su Jilan, Robert Knox, Suzanne Lacasse, Larry Mayer, Craig McLean, Michael Meredith, Jean-Francois Minster, Alain Morash, Rob Murdoch, Nii Odunton, Annelies Pierrot-Bults, Fangli Qiao, Muthukamatchi Ravindran, Shubha Sathyendranath, Sergey Shapovalov, Sunil Murlidhar Shastri, Victor Smetacek, Kiyoshi Suyehiro, Tamaki Ura, and James Yoder. These talks helped set the stage for fruitful discussions in the closed sessions that followed. Edward Urban, Jr., Elizabeth Gross, and Maria Hood were a great assistance to the committee and staff in planning the International Global Ocean Exploration Workshop. The Committee is also grateful to Margot Bohan who provided important material for this report. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in their review of this report: VERA ALEXANDER, University of Alaska, Fairbanks FRANCIS A. DAHLEN, JR., Princeton University, New Jersey RUSS DAVIS, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California SCOTT DONEY, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts SYLVIA EARLE, Deep Ocean Exploration and Research, Inc., Oakland, California ROGER LUKAS, University of Hawaii, Honolulu STEPHEN OLSEN, University of Rhode Island, Narragansett KARL TUREKIAN, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut DONALD WALSH, International Maritime, Inc., Myrtle Point, Oregon Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William Fenical, appointed by the Divison on Earth and Life Studies, and Carl Wunsch, appointed by the Report Review Committee, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Exploration of the Seas: Interim Report
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Exploration of the Seas: Interim Report CONTENTS Executive Summary 1 Introduction 3 Comparison of Ocean Exploration and Ocean Research 3 Key Features of an Ocean Exploration Program 5 Benefits to the United States from Initiating an International Ocean Exploration Program 7 Priority Areas for Ocean Exploration 8 Marine Biodiversity 8 The Polar Oceans 10 Marine Archaeology 12 Deep Water and Its Role in Climate Change 13 Exploring the Ocean Through Time 14 Proposed Organization of an Ocean Exploration Program 14 The Program in the United States 14 Funding a U.S. Program 15 International Structure 16 Voluntary Information Sharing 19 Ocean Exploration as a Tool for Public Education 19 Conclusion 20 References 21 Appendixes A Committee and Staff Biographies 22 B Congressional Request 26 C Committee Timeline and First Meeting’s Agenda 31 D International Global Ocean Exploration Workshop: Agenda and Participants 33
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Exploration of the Seas: Interim Report