domestic disease surveillance and, 10, 167

global disease surveillance and, 9, 151

global response capacity and, 8, 151

interdisciplinary disease centers and, 17, 224

Plum Island facility, 183box

Air travel, 99–101

American trypanosomiasis, 95

Andes virus, 68, 74, 75fig.

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), 183box

Animal husbandry practices, 91–93

anthrax and, 133box

inappropriate use of antimicrobials and, 207–209

influenza virus and, 145–146

Animal reservoirs, 2, 4, 59box, 68

abundance and distribution of, 71–75

changes in environment and, 64

domestic animals, 223

increased human contact with, 5, 20, 75–76, 213

of influenza viruses, 139, 141

intelligence gathering about, 324–325

Animals, 22, 166

antibiotic use in, 211box

antimicrobials in growth promotion of, 15

raised as food products, 6

relation to microbes, 54

Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis), 20, 46, 48–49, 166

diagnostics and, 174–175

immunohistochemistry and, 177

as natural zoonotic disease, 223

need for stockpile of antimicrobials and, 203

public health capacity and, 162

syndromic surveillance and, 282–283, 287, 289

terrorists and, 34t, 130, 132, 133box, 134, 165, 186

vaccine for, 187

Antibiotics, 24box, 184, 190–191, 192– 195t, 320

animal husbandry and, 92–93

bacterial resistance to, 146–147

bioterrorism and, 48, 49

broad-spectrum, 11, 175

chronic conditions treated with, 43

inappropriate use of, 176

new classes of, 13–14

Antigenic drift, 142, 144

Antimicrobial resistance, 32, 38–40, 41fig., 202, 212box, 320

animal husbandry practices and, 92

climate change and, 65

diagnostics and, 176

tuberculosis control and, 117

Antimicrobials, 6, 91

in aquaculture, 93–94

inappropriate use of, 11, 14–15, 204– 209

need for new drugs, 13–14, 190–191, 192–197t, 198, 199t, 200fig., 201– 204

Antiretroviral therapy, 150, 201t, 227

Antitoxins, 14, 204

Antivirals, 14, 143, 203

HIV and, 198, 201

influenza and, 201–202

need for new drugs, 191, 195–197t, 198

Aquaculture, 93–94, 104

Arbovirus, 118

Archaea pathogens, 313, 314

Arenaviruses, 72, 73

Argentina, 73, 74

Argentine hemorrhagic fever, 73

Arthropod vectors, 68, 70, 71, 185, 186, 213

Asia, 71, 73, 77, 89–90box, 155

“Asian flu,” 138

Aspergillosis/Aspergillus spp., 66box, 86

Atherosclerosis, 42t, 44

Aum Shinrikyo, 130

Australia, 36t, 40, 72box

Autopsies, 177, 178box

Avian influenza, 33fig., 139, 141fig., 142fig., 144

B

Babesiosis, 95

Bacteria, 23n, 34–35t.

See also Microbes;

Microbial threats;

specific species

chronic conditions associated with, 42t

diversity of, 313

etiologic diagnosis and, 178

genetic mutations in, 56

human immune system and, 57

multidrug-resistant, 2



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