Testing and Evaluation of

STANDOFF CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTORS

Committee on Testing and Evaluation of Standoff Chemical Agent Detectors

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu



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Testing and Evaluation of STANDOFF CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTORS Committee on Testing and Evaluation of Standoff Chemical Agent Detectors Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W.Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. DTRA 01-02-C-0091 between the Department of Defense and the National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organization or agencies that provide support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08740-6 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-50712-X (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from: The National Academies Press 500 5th Street, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON TESTING AND EVALUATION OF STANDOFF CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTORS EDWIN P. PRZYBYLOWICZ, Eastman Kodak Company (Retired), Chair EDWARD V. BROWELL, NASA Langley Research Center D. BRUCE CHASE, E. I. Dupont de Nemours & Company JAMES A. DE HASETH, University of Georgia RICHARD C. FLAGAN, California Institute of Technology PETER R. GRIFFITHS, University of Idaho DAVID W. LAYTON, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory THOMAS A. REICHARDT, Sandia National Laboratories LORENZ R. RHOMBERG, Gradient Corporation Staff CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DOUGLAS J. RABER, Senior Scholar DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Program Assistant DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

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BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY ALICE P. GAST, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Co-Chair WILLIAM KLEMPERER, Harvard University, Co-Chair ARTHUR I. BIENENSTOCK, Stanford University A. WELFORD CASTLEMAN, JR., The Pennsylvania State University ANDREA W. CHOW, Caliper Technologies Corp. THOMAS M. CONNELLY, JR., E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company JEANDE GRAEVE, Institut de Pathologie, Liège, Belgium JOSEPH M. DESIMONE, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and North Carolina State University CATHERINE FENSELAU, University of Maryland JON FRANKLIN, University of Maryland MARY L. GOOD, University of Arkansas, Little Rock RICHARD M. GROSS, Dow Chemical Company NANCY B. JACKSON, Sandia National Laboratories SANGTAE KIM, Eli Lilly and Company THOMAS J. MEYER, Los Alamos National Laboratory PAUL J. REIDER, Amgen, Inc. ARNOLD F. STANCELL, Georgia Institute of Technology ROBERT M. SUSSMAN, Latham & Watkins JOHN C. TULLY, Yale University CHI-HUEY WONG, Scripps Research Institute Staff JENNIFER J. JACKIW, Program Officer CHRISTOPHER K. MURPHY, Program Officer SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate DOUGLAS J. RABER, Senior Scholar DAVID C. RASMUSSEN, Program Assistant ERIC L. SHIPP, Postdoctoral Fellow DOROTHY ZOLANDZ, Director

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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Steven D. Brown, University of Delaware Augustus W. Fountain III, United States Military Academy Stanley Kaplan, Bayesian Systems, Incorporated W. Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado Alan B. Rothman, Argonne National Laboratory Lynn M. Russell, Princeton University Panagiotis G. Smirniotis, University of Cincinnati J.D. Tate, Dow Chemical Company Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lewis M. Branscomb, Harvard University, and Royce W. Murray, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Preface The present study was requested by the Department of Defense (DoD) as a result of questions raised regarding the conclusions of an earlier study carried out by the Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI). The DoD asked that the National Research Council provide a “second opinion” for how to test and evaluate standoff chemical warfare agent (CWA) detectors. Because of the possible imminent need to deploy such detectors, this NRC study was conducted over a short time frame—four months. The committee’s Statement of Work, in its narrow but important focus, reflects the urgent nature of this study.1 Despite the complex technical issues addressed by the committee, this study and report contribute but a small piece to the very large and multifaceted challenge of detecting CWAs in the environment. There is a large body of information already in existence on this broad topic within the DoD and other agencies that have addressed not only the CWA topic itself but also related subjects such as delivery systems, terrorism activities, and strategies for the use of such agents. In related areas, there are meteorological and space studies that can provide necessary basic information important to modeling the behavior of CWAs in the environment. This body of knowledge can be valuable to understanding the field deployment of standoff detectors not only of the present design but also of future detectors that may be based on alternative technologies. These are areas that the committee determined were outside its purview based on its Statement of Work. The committee believes that it has provided in this report a sound technical and practical pathway to the challenge of testing and evaluating standoff detectors for CWAs based on infrared spectroscopy. 1   The committee’s Statement of Work may be found in Appendix A.

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Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction   6 2   Overview   9 3   Recommended Test Protocol and Decision Tree for Passive Detectors   12 4   Recommended Test Protocol and Decision Tree for Active Detectors (Lidar)   19 5   Simulant Characteristics and Specifics   24 6   Research Areas to Support the Test Protocols for Standoff Detectors   27 7   Decision Making and Risk   28 8   Summary of Recommendations   31     APPENDIXES         A Statement of Work   35     B Committee Membership   37     C Risk Assessment in the Testing, Evaluation, and Use of Standoff Detectors   40     D Acronyms and Glossary of Terms   52

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