Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System

Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAD19-01-C-008 between the U.S. Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08269-2 Limited copies are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 (202) 334–3118 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) <http://www.nap.edu> Copyright 2001 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm.A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. Wm.A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY NON-STOCKPILE CHEMICAL MATERIEL DISPOSAL PROGRAM JOHN B.CARBERRY, Chair, E.I.duPont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Delaware JOHN C.ALLEN, Battelle Memorial Institute, Washington, D.C. RICHARD J.AYEN, Waste Management, Inc. (retired), Wakefield, Rhode Island ROBERT A.BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Los Angeles LISA M.BENDIXEN, Arthur D.Little, Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts JOAN B.BERKOWITZ, Farkas Berkowitz and Company, Washington, D.C. JUDITH A.BRADBURY, Battelle Patuxent River, California, Maryland A.STAN DAVIS, consultant, Greer, South Carolina MARTIN C.EDELSON, Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa SIDNEY J.GREEN, TerraTek, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah PAUL F.KAVANAUGH, consultant, Fairfax, Virginia TODD A.KIMMELL, Argonne National Laboratory, Washington, D.C. DOUGLAS M.MEDVILLE, MITRE (retired), Reston, Virginia WINIFRED G.PALMER, consultant, Frederick, Maryland GEORGE W.PARSHALL, E.I.duPont de Nemours and Company (retired), Wilmington, Delaware JAMES P.PASTORICK, GEOPHEX UXO, Alexandria, Virginia R.PETER STICKLES, consultant, Concord, Massachusetts WILLIAM J.WALSH, Pepper Hamilton LLP, Washington, D.C. RONALD L.WOODFIN, Sandia National Laboratories (retired), Albuquerque, New Mexico Board on Army Science and Technology Liaison HENRY J.HATCH, U.S. Army (retired), Oakton, Virginia Staff NANCY T.SCHULTE, Study Director (from July 2001) MICHAEL A.CLARKE, Acting Study Director (to July 2001) DELPHINE D.GLAZE, Administrative Assistant JAMES KILLIAN, Staff Officer WILLIAM E.CAMPBELL, Administrative Coordinator GREG EYRING, Consultant

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WILLIAM H.FORSTER, Chair, Northrop Grumman Corporation, Baltimore, Maryland JOHN E.MILLER, Vice Chair, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia ROBERT L.CATTOI, Rockwell International (retired), Dallas, Texas RICHARD A.CONWAY, Union Carbide Corporation (retired), Charleston, West Virginia GILBERT F.DECKER, Walt Disney Imagineering (retired), Glendale, California PATRICK F.FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana HENRY J.HATCH, U.S. Army (retired), Oakton, Virginia EDWARD J.HAUG, University of Iowa, Iowa City GERALD J.IAFRATE, North Carolina State University, Raleigh MIRIAM E.JOHN, California Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore DONALD R.KEITH, Cypress International (retired), Alexandria, Virginia CLARENCE W.KITCHENS, IIT Research Institute, Alexandria, Virginia KATHRYN V.LOGAN, Georgia Institute of Technology (professor emerita), Roswell JOHN W.LYONS, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland JOHN H.MOXLEY, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles, California STEWART D.PERSONICK, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania MILLARD F.ROSE, Radiance Technologies, Huntsville, Alabama GEORGE T.SINGLEY III, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia CLARENCE G.THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D.VENABLES, Venables and Associates, Towson, Maryland JOSEPH J.VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida Staff BRUCE A.BRAUN, Director MICHAEL A.CLARKE, Associate Director WILLIAM E.CAMPBELL, Administrative Coordinator CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate GWEN ROBY, Administrative Assistant DEANNA P.SPARGER, Senior Project Assistant DANIEL E.J.TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System Preface The Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program (see Appendix A for biographies of committee members) was appointed by the National Research Council (NRC) to conduct studies on technical aspects of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program. During its first year, the committee evaluated the Army’s plans to dispose of chemical agent identification sets (CAIS)—test kits used for soldier training (NRC, 1999d). During the second year, the committee recommended nonincineration technologies that might be used for the posttreatment of neutralization wastes from Army nonstockpile materiel disposal systems. For this third year, the Army asked the committee to supplement its report on neutralent wastes to include wastes produced by the Army’s newest mobile system, the explosive destruction system (EDS) (NRC, 2001a). In addition, in a report to be published in the spring of 2002, the committee is assessing the operational concepts for mobile and semipermanent facilities being developed by the product manager. At its meetings, the committee was given a number of briefings (see Appendix B) and held subsequent deliberations. The committee is grateful to the many individuals, particularly Lt. Col. Christopher Ross, Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel, and his staff, who provided technical information and insights during these briefings. This information provided a sound foundation for the committee’s deliberations. This study was conducted under the auspices of the NRC’s Board on Army Science and Technology. The committee acknowledges the continued superb support of the director, Bruce A.Braun, associate director Michael A. Clarke, NRC staff, committee members, the study director, support staff, and the publication staff, who all worked diligently on a demanding schedule to produce this report. In addition, I would like to particularly recognize the extra leadership and effort by committee member Douglas Medville in the preparation of this specific report. John B.Carberry, Chair Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the NRC in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and the draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Joseph Bozelli, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Elisabeth M.Drake, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Gene Dyer, consultant, Gary Lage, ToxiLogics, Inc., Alvin Mushkatel, Arizona State University, Carmo Pereira, DuPont Engineering, William R.Rhyne, consultant, Chandra M.Roy, ABS Consulting, and William Tumas, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Bailar. Appointed by the NRC’s Report Review Committee, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW   8     Statement of Task,   9     Committee Approach,   10     Report Scope,   10     Structure of This Report,   10 2   DESCRIPTION OF EDS TREAMENT PROCESSES AND LIQUID WASTE STREAMS   12     Description of the Explosive Destruction System,   12     Experience with the EDS-1,   12     Operational Processes of the EDS-1,   15     EDS Liquid Waste Volume and Composition Data,   17     Potential for Encountering Unusual Chemical Species in the EDS,   19     Potential for Encountering Other Unusual Chemical Compounds,   20     Data Gaps and Uncertainties,   20 3   APPLICABILITY OF TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO EDS LIQUID WASTE STREAMS   22     Previous Technology Recommendations,   22     Army Technology Testing Programs,   23     Reconsideration of the Previous Technologies for Destruction of EDS Liquid Waste Streams,   23     Reconsideration of the Committee’s Earlier Recommendation on Neutralent Treatment Technologies for Application to Liquid Waste Streams,   27     Findings and Recommendations,   29 4   REGULATORY AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT ISSUES   32     Regulatory Approval and Permitting,   32     Public Involvement,   37     REFERENCES   39

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System     APPENDIXES         A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   43     B Committee Meetings and Site Visit   47     C Composition of Liquid Waste Streams from Destruction of Sarin in the EDS   49     D Comparison of MMD and EDS Neutralent Toxicities   52     E Criteria for Evaluating Technologies   54     F Explosive Destruction System Phase 1 (EDS-1) Overview and Description   56     G Use of Tracking Compounds to Assess the Performance of a Treatment Technology   59

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System Tables and Figure TABLES ES-1   EDS-1 Liquid Waste Streams Considered in this Study,   2 2–1   Composition of Mustard (HD) Neutralent Derived from Treatment with 90 Percent MEA,   13 2–2   Composition of Sarin (GB) Neutralent Derived from Treatment with 45 Percent MEA in Water,   14 2–3   Composition of Phosgene (CG) Neutralent Derived from Aqueous Caustic Treatment,   15 2–4   EDS Treatment Solutions and Liquid Waste Handling,   16 2–5   Summary of Liquid Wastes from EDS Tests to Date,   17 3–1   NSCMP Technology Test Program Status,   23 3–2   Summary of Alternative Technology Evaluations,   28 C-1   Composition of Liquid Waste Streams from the EDS Treatment of Sarin (GB) Bomblets at RMA,   50 D-1   Toxicity Characteristics of Energetic Compounds,   53 F-1   System for Accessing Chemical Munitions,   58 FIGURE 1–1   Diagram of the EDS-1 vessel on its trailer,   9

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System Acronyms and Abbreviations ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Assessment (Program) ATAP Alternative Technology Approach Program BAA broad agency announcement CAIS chemical agent identification sets CAMDS chemical agent munitions disposal system CDU capacitor discharge unit CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act CFR U.S. Code of Federal Regulations CG phosgene CSC conical shaped charge CSDP Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program CWA Clean Water Act CWC Chemical Weapons Convention CWM chemical warfare materiel DA diphenylchloroarsine DM adamsite DOT U.S. Department of Transportation DPG Dugway Proving Ground EBW exploding bridge-wire EDS explosive destruction system EPA Environmental Protection Agency FOTW federally owned treatment works FSS fragment suppression system GA tabun (nerve agent) GB sarin (nerve agent) GPCR gas-phase chemical reduction H sulfur mustard HD sulfur mustard (distilled) HL mustard-lewisite mixture HN-1, H-3 nitrogen mustard HT mustard agent T mixture L lewisite LDR land disposal restrictions LSC linear shaped charge MEA monoethanolamine MEK methyl ethyl ketone MMD munitions management device NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NPL national priorities list NRC National Research Council NSCMP Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Product NSCWCC Non-Stockpile Chemical Weapons Citizens Coalition NSCWM Non-Stockpile Chemical Warfare Materiel O/SS oxidant/solvent system PCB polychlorinated biphenyl PD Porton Down (United Kingdom) PINS portable isotopic neutron spectroscopy PMCD Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization PMNSCM Product Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel POP persistent organic pollutants POTW publicly owned treatment works ppb parts per billion (μg/L) ppm parts per million (mg/L) RAP regulatory approval/permitting RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RD&D research, development, and demonstration

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Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Disposal of Liquid Wastes from the Explosive Destruction System RDX cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine RMA Rocky Mountain Arsenal RRS rapid response system SCWO supercritical water oxidation SET solvated-electron technology SVOC semivolatile organic compound TCLP toxicity characteristic leaching procedure TNT trinitrotoluene TSDF treatment, storage, and disposal facility UXO unexploded ordnance VOC volatile organic compound VX a nerve agent WAO wet-air oxidation