REPORT TO THE GOVERNMENT-UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY RESEARCH ROUNDTABLE

ENVISIONING A 21ST CENTURY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING WORKFORCE FOR THE UNITED STATES

TASKS FOR UNIVERSITY, INDUSTRY, AND GOVERNMENT

SHIRLEY ANN JACKSON, PH.D.

PRESIDENT, RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE

The views expressed are those of the author and do not represent an official policy statement of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable nor of its sponsoring organizations or the National Academies.

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Envisioning a 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry and Government REPORT TO THE GOVERNMENT-UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY RESEARCH ROUNDTABLE ENVISIONING A 21ST CENTURY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING WORKFORCE FOR THE UNITED STATES TASKS FOR UNIVERSITY, INDUSTRY, AND GOVERNMENT SHIRLEY ANN JACKSON, PH.D. PRESIDENT, RENSSELAER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE The views expressed are those of the author and do not represent an official policy statement of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable nor of its sponsoring organizations or the National Academies. THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Envisioning a 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry and Government THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 This paper was supported by Contract/Grant No. NASW-99037 between the National Academy of Sciences and NASA, and Contract/Grant No. 50SBNB0C2025 between the National Academy of Sciences and NIST. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08856-9 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Envisioning a 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry and Government THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Envisioning a 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry and Government “. . . IF THE S&E WORKFORCE IS INADEQUATE TO NEED, THE NATION’S INNOVATION ENGINE WILL SLOW, CURTAILING U.S. COMPETITIVENESS IN A GLOBAL ECONOMY . . .”

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Envisioning a 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry and Government THE ROUNDTABLE COUNCIL MARYE ANNE FOX, Chancellor, North Carolina State University WILLIAM JOYCE, Chief Executive Officer, Hercules Incorporated BRUCE ALBERTS, President, National Academy of Sciences ARDEN BEMENT, Director, National Institute of Standards and Technology JOHN BROWN, Chairman and CEO, Stryker Corporation ALBERT CARNESALE, Chancellor, University of California, Los Angeles RITA COLWELL, Director, National Science Foundation ROBERT EDWARDS, Professor, Case Western Reserve University CARLENE ELLIS, Vice President, Finance & Enterprise Services, Intel Corporation HARVEY FINEBERG, President, Institute of Medicine MARY GOOD, Managing Member, Venture Capital Investors, LLC JEROME GROSSMAN, CEO, Lion Gate Management Corporation, John F. Kennedy School of Government MICHAEL JACKSON, Deputy Secretary, U.S. Department of Transportation SHIRLEY ANN JACKSON, President, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute JOSEPH JEN, Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics, U.S. Department of Agriculture DEAN KAMEN, President, DEKA Research & Development Corporation CONRAD LAUTENBACHER, Under Secretary, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce JEFFREY LEIDEN, Chief Scientific Officer, Abbott Laboratories JOHN MARBURGER, Director, Office of Science and Technology Policy JAMES MCGRODDY, Former Senior Vice President for Research, IBM SEAN O'KEEFE, Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Adminstration RAYMOND ORBACH, Director, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy MICHAEL RAMAGE, Executive Advisor, ExxonMobil LAWRENCE RHOADES, President, Extrude Hone Corporation BERNARD SCHWETZ, Senior Advisor for Science, U.S. Food and Drug Administration RONALD SEGA, Director, Defense Research and Engineering, Office of the Secretary of Defense CHRISTINE WHITMAN, Administrator, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency WILLIAM WULF, President, National Academy of Engineering ELIAS ZERHOUNI, Director, National Institutes of Health

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Envisioning a 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry and Government “. . . THE UNITED STATES ACHIEVED PRE-EMINENCE IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARTLY BECAUSE IT WAS ABLE TO RECRUIT AND EDUCATE THE BEST TALENT FROM AROUND THE WORLD.”

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Envisioning a 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry and Government PREFACE The Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable (GUIRR) of the National Academies has a continuing interest in science and engineering (S&E) workforce issues. The Roundtable convened a workshop on this subject in October 2001 and held a pan-organizational summit meeting in November 2002. Specific concerns were the S&E workforce needs of the federal government and the additional challenges that scientific and technical agencies face. To further inform its discussions, GUIRR asked Dr. Shirley Ann Jackson, President, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, to present her position on these issues in a report to the Roundtable. The statements made in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily represent positions of the Roundtable or the National Academies. This paper has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will ensure that the report meets institutional standards for quality. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this paper: Willie Pearson, Georgia Institute of Technology Helga Rippen, RAND Science and Technology Policy Institute Jonathan Yochelson, BEST Initiative (Building Engineering and Science Talent) Although the reviewers listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the paper. Responsibility for the final content of the paper rests with the author. Marye Anne Fox Co-Chair, GUIRR William H. Joyce Co-Chair, GUIRR

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Envisioning a 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry and Government This page in the original is blank.

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Envisioning a 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry and Government CONTENTS     Introduction   1     The Problem   5     Understanding the Risks to the S&E Workforce   9     The Risks of a Declining S&E Workforce   11     Strengthening the S&E Workforce   13     Conclusion   18

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Envisioning a 21st Century Science and Engineering Workforce for the United States: Tasks for University, Industry and Government “. . . AFRICAN-AMERICANS AND ETHNIC MINORITIES CONSTITUTE 24 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL POPULATION BUT ONLY 7 PERCENT OF THE S&E LABOR FORCE.”