TABLE 10-1 Humans’ Expectable Environments of Rearing

Social ecology

Child care

 

Gestation: maternal stress, nutrition, activity

 

Prolonged carrying (devices may be used for holding, carrying)

 

Infant/child signaling-caregiver response (contingency, state regulation)

 

Cosleeping

 

Breastfeeding (and weaning)

 

Variable caregiver competence

 

Provisioning into adolescence with transition to productive in(ter)dependence

Family

 

Parents

 

Coresident dependent siblings

 

Privileged emotion communication and intersubjective regulation

 

Resident in family into adolescence

Social group

 

Multiage, mixed-sex with changeable composition (mobility, mortality)

 

Presence of kin and nonkin

Pervasive language use, multiple registers (e.g., information exchange, narrative)

Collaboration

Sharing and exchange (socially and spatiotemporally displaced reciprocities)

Contexts for play, practice, and exploration (risk taking)

 

Multiage, mixed-sex play groups

 

Tolerance of low productivity, incompetence

 

Surveillance, safe spaces

Participant observation in adult activities and competent performances

 

Feedback on imitation, provision of instruction, guided participation

Use of analogs and symbols (visual, acoustic)

Tool use

Fire and thermal buffering (possibly with clothing, coverings)

Sanctions (physical, verbal, social)

Bioecology

Food constituents and gut activity

Energetics (resource reliability and quality, maintenance costs) and metabolic regulation

Exposures to pathogens, parasites, and dirt and immune development

Sensory inputs, activity patterns, and brain development

Perceived safety or security and vigilance (attention and arousal regulation)

human social life and culture is repatterned or rent, fertility outcomes (in terms of effective fertility) are changed.

We can expect a large measure of robustness in biocultural transmission for critical features such as language and for those under previous selection for retention of plasticity. Other areas of human developmental ecology may be more vulnerable, particularly (1) emotion and arousal regulation, particularly in affiliation, anxiety, violence and aggression, and toler-



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement