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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective Contributors and Other Workshop Participants Susan C. Alberts is an assistant professor in the Department of Biology at Duke University. She works primarily in two lines of research. The first involves understanding how behavior impacts individual fitness in natural populations of large mammals. This research is based on detailed information about individual behavior and life histories and is focused primarily on the savannah baboon population in Amboseli National Park in southern Kenya. The second involves the relationship between genes and behavior: How does behavior affect a population’s genetic structure, and how do genetic relationships influence behavior? This work includes projects on both the Amboseli baboon population and the well-studied Amboseli wild elephant population. Dr. Alberts holds a B.A. in biology from Reed College, an M.A. in biology from the University of California, Los Angeles, and a Ph.D. in ecology and evolution from the University of Chicago. Jeanne Altmann is professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at Princeton University. She holds a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago and was previously chair of the Committee on Evolutionary Biology there. Dr. Altmann’s interests focus on nonexperimental research design and analysis, ecology and evolution of family relationships and behavioral development, primate demography and life histories, conservation education, and behavioral aspects of conservation. Since 1971 she and her colleagues have conducted an intensive longitudinal study of demography, ecology, and behavior of the baboons of Amboseli National Park in Kenya, a program that has recently been extended to include noninvasive investigations of genetic structure and physiology. Dr. Altmann is a member of the American Academy of
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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective Arts and Sciences. Her professional activities have included service as editor of Animal Behaviour, president of the Animal Behavior Society, vice president for conservation for the International Primatological Society, advisory board member for the National Science Foundation/Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, and, currently, chair of the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Integrated Nonhuman Primate Biomaterials and Information Resource. Rodolfo A. Bulatao was staff director for the panel organizing the workshop. His research has covered psychosocial issues in population, fertility determinants, family planning program effectiveness, and program and reproductive health service costs. He previously directed the World Bank’s annual population projections and has worked on projections in various areas, including causes of death. He has also helped develop and evaluate population projects in developing countries. Dr. Bulatao was previously affiliated with the East-West Center and the University of the Philippines. He served on the National Research Council’s Committee on Population in 1983-1985 and on its Working Group on Population Growth and Economic Development. He has an M.A. in sociology from the University of the Philippines and a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Chicago. Judy L. Cameron is associate professor of psychiatry, neuroscience, and cell biology at the Oregon Primate Center. She studies the effects of exposure to mild everyday stresses on long-term health. Her laboratory work focuses on identifying the neural systems that respond to stress and understanding how changes in the functional activity of these systems modulate stress-responsive physiological systems, including behavior, neuroendocrine function, cardiovascular function, and glucose tolerance. The stresses studied include metabolic stresses (such as dieting, missing meals, and exercise) and psychosocial stress (such as being separated from familiar individuals and introduced to unfamiliar individuals). Her studies utilize nonhuman primates, and many combine experimental work with clinical work to understand the mechanisms underlying responses to chronic exposure to stress and the clinical implications. Dr. Cameron holds a Ph.D. from the University of Arizona. Benjamin Campbell is assistant professor of anthropology at Boston University. He received his Ph.D. in anthropology from Harvard University in 1990, with additional postdoctoral training in demography at the Carolina Population Center. His intellectual interests are in the area of human evolutionary biology, namely, the implications of human evolution for the biology and behavior of living populations. His recent research focuses on human reproductive biology, including physiology and behavior, and its
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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective relationship to health. He has done research among Turkana and Ariaal pastoralists in Kenya and adolescent boys in the United States, Zimbabwe, and Zambia as well as with macaques and baboons. He is currently pursuing questions surrounding the impact of environmental fluctuations on the evolution of life history, particularly the stage of adolescence, in humans. Steven W. Gangestad is a professor in the Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico. His interests revolve around evolutionary psychology, particularly the ways in which humans’ current psychological design is a product of evolutionary selection. His recent research has focused on the evolution of adaptations involved in romantic relationships, most particularly the determinants of mate attraction. Dr. Gangestad holds a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. John Hobcraft is professor of population studies in the Department of Social Policy at the London School of Economics. He is also a research associate with the Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion and chairs the Population Investigation Committee. He is currently a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on Population and of Academia Europaea. His research covers many facets of demography, including methodology and substance on the topics of child health and mortality, fertility, partnership, family, and gender. He has worked extensively on demographic behavior and its underpinnings for both the developing world and for Great Britain and Europe. He has recently been researching the life course factors involved in the emergence of multiple disadvantage or social exclusion in the United Kingdom. Prof. Hobcraft is active in population policy, among other things having been a lead negotiator for the United Kingdom at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development in 1994. He has a B.Sc. in economics from the London School of Economics. Hillard S. Kaplan is professor of anthropology at the University of New Mexico. A researcher in the field of human behavioral ecology, he has worked on fertility patterns and family formation in New Mexico and Botswana. He has also done fieldwork among foraging peoples and hunter-horticulturalists, such as the Ache in Paraguay; the Machiguenga, Piro, and Yora in Peru; the Tsimane in Bolivia; and the HamBukushu in Botswana. With his colleagues he has been responsible for producing some of the most detailed quantitative datasets on human foraging, sharing, parental care, and demography. Dr. Kaplan has masters’ degrees from the University of Pennsylvania and Columbia University and a Ph.D. from the University of Utah. Hans-Peter Kohler received an M.A. in demography (1994) and a Ph.D. in economics (1997) from the University of California, Berkeley, and cur-
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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective rently is associate professor of sociology at the University of Pennsylvania. Previously, he was head of the research group on social dynamics and fertility at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (1997-2002) and a visiting professor at the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley (fall 2002). His research focuses on fertility and related behaviors in both developing and developed countries. A key characteristic of his research is the attempt to integrate demographic, economic, sociological, and biological approaches in empirical and theoretical models of demographic behavior. Within this broader goal, Dr. Kohler’s research interests are centered around three themes: (1) the biodemography of fertility in low fertility contexts, including a particular focus on the relevance of genetic influences on fertility and related behaviors and the interaction of these influences with socioeconomic change; (2) the theoretical and empirical implications of social interactions for fertility change, behavioral responses to AIDS, and population dynamics in developing and developed countries; and (3) patterns of extremely low fertility in Southern and Eastern Europe, including also the development of new methods for measuring and forecasting below-replacement fertility. David Lam is professor of economics and director of the Population Studies Center and the Michigan Center on the Demography of Aging at the University of Michigan. He is also a member of the National Research Council’s Committee on Population. His work focuses on the interaction of economics and demography in developing countries, including research on human capital, inequality, fertility, marriage, and aging. His current research focuses on intergenerational dynamics of inequality in Brazil and South Africa. He has a master’s degree in demography and a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley. Jane B. Lancaster has been a professor of anthropology at the University of New Mexico since 1985. Her scholarship focuses on the evolutionary biology and behavior of humans using cross-cultural and human evolutionary ecology perspectives. Since 1990 she has collaborated with Hillard Kaplan on a multiyear project funded by the National Science Foundation on fertility and investment in children among men in Albuquerque. The project has surveyed more than 7,000 men and has done long life history interviews of 1,300. The goal was to look at trade-offs in male fertility and child quality. A second initiative has been to develop the field of human evolutionary ecology in anthropology. Dr. Lancaster established the human evolutionary ecology graduate training program at the University of New Mexico. She has also edited a series of volumes under the auspices of the Social Science Research Council: Child Abuse and Neglect (1987), Parenting Across the Life Span (1987), and School-Age Pregnancy and Parenthood (1986). In
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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective 1990 she established Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective, a journal rated fifth among anthropology journals based on citations. Joseph L. Rodgers is a Robert Glenn Rapp Foundation presidential professor at the University of Oklahoma. He has a B.S. in mathematics from the University of Oklahoma and an M.A. and a Ph.D. in psychology (with a minor in biostatistics) from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has been in the quantitative psychology program at the University of Oklahoma since 1981, with visiting research and teaching positions in psychology and statistics at the University of Hawaii, Ohio State, the University of North Carolina, Duke University, and the University of Southern Denmark. Dr. Rodgers’s methodological areas of interest include nonlinear dynamic modeling, scaling and measurement, behavior genetic models, and quasi-experimental design. His substantive interests include intellectual development, adolescent sexual development, adolescent deviance, and human fertility. Michael L. Rutter is professor of developmental psychopathology at the Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College, University of London. He is also an honorary consultant psychiatrist at the South London and Maudsley National Health Service Trust in London. He was honorary director of the Medical Research Council’s Unit in Child Psychiatry from 1984 to 1998 and honorary director of the Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Research Centre from 1994 to 1998. Dr. Rutter holds a medical degree from the University of Birmingham Medical School and received postgraduate training in internal medicine, pediatrics, psychiatry, and psychology. His research interests particularly involve the interplay between nature and nurture as applied to life-span development. He is a fellow of both the Royal Society and the British Academy, a foreign associate member of the Institute of Medicine, a foreign honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1989) and a foreign associate member of the U.S. National Academy of Education (1990). Kenneth W. Wachter is professor of demography and statistics and chair of the Department of Demography at the University of California, Berkeley. His research deals with the demography of aging, mathematical demography, biodemography, computer simulation of demographic and social processes, and census adjustment. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He received the Mindel Sheps award in mathematical demography and served, until recently, on the board of directors of the Social Science Research Council. He
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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective is the chair of the National Research Council’s Committee on Population. Dr. Wachter holds a Ph.D. in statistics from Cambridge University. Carol M. Worthman currently holds the Samuel Candler Dobbs chair in the Department of Anthropology, Emory University (Atlanta), where she also directs the Laboratory for Comparative Human Biology. Her work is at the cutting edge of interdisciplinary biosocial research on human development, particularly reproductive endocrinology. She has conducted cross-cultural ethnographic and biosocial research among the Kikuyu of Kenya and the Hagahai of Papua New Guinea, as well as in rural and semiurban areas of the United States. Dr. Worthman is internationally recognized through her contributions in developing evolutionarily sophisticated models of human development and in the emerging field of evolutionary medicine generally. Since 1987 she has been principal investigator or coprincipal investigator on projects supported by such major funding agencies as the National Science Foundation, the National Geographic Society, the Ford Foundation, and the Spencer Foundation. In 1988-1993 she received a W.T. Grant faculty scholar career development award. She is currently principal investigator at the National Institutes of Health Research Center for Developmental Epidemiology. Dr. Worthman obtained her Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1978. Larry J. Young is an associate professor at the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Center for Behavioral Neuroscience at Emory University in Atlanta. He holds a B.S. in biochemistry from the University of Georgia and a Ph.D. in zoology from the University of Texas at Austin. He has also received postdoctoral training from the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Emory University. Dr. Young’s research focuses primarily on the molecular and neuroendocrine bases of social behavior. Much of the work concerns the role of the neuropeptides, oxytocin and vasopressin, and their receptors on social behavior. Dr. Young is also interested in understanding how behavioral systems evolve at the level of the genome.
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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective OTHER WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS Christine Bachrach National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Bethesda, MD Barney Cohen Committee on Population National Research Council Peter T. Ellison Department of Anthropology Harvard University John Haaga Population Reference Bureau Washington, DC Jennifer Harris National Institute on Aging Bethesda, MD Kristin Hawkes Department of Anthropology University of Utah Kim Wallen Department of Psychology Emory University Maxine Weinstein Center for Population and Health Georgetown University
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