Index

A

Add Health, see National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

Additive, Common, Environment (ACE) models, 65-68, 340, 342-344

Adolescence and adolescents, 6, 210, 262, 313

see also Puberty

child care by, 209

energy needs, 305

evolutionary anthropology, 11, 268-269

family size and antisocial behavior, 19

fertility rates, 19

growth spurt, 11, 144, 261, 264-266, 267, 268, 296, 298, 300

rites of passage, 307

sexual behavior, 52, 118-119, 261-279 (passim)

surveys of, 6, 56, 346-347

Adoptee studies, viii, 6, 21, 28, 353

Adrenal gland, 11, 106, 115, 119, 303

male pubertal maturation, 119, 262, 265, 266, 269, 270, 271, 273, 277, 278

stress, 123, 126, 128

Adrenarche, 119, 265, 266, 267, 271, 279, 301

Africa

AIDS, 20

baboon study, 8-9, 127, 141, 142, 143-164, 310

South Africa, 205, 333-328, 377

Age factors, 9, 10, 15

see also Adolescence and adolescents;

Growth;

Longevity;

Puberty

adoptee studies, parental age, 28

AIDS, 20

animal studies, 11-12, 140-164 (passim)

emotional development, 302, 306-307, 313-314

evolutionary anthropology, 10, 11-12, 140-169, 173-174, 180-182

fertility transition, 63-64

first attempt at pregnancy, age at, 57

first pregnancy, age at, 19, 34, 53, 64, 84, 171, 186, 204, 205, 262, 274

hormonal factors, 104, 116-120

life history theory, 11-12, 140-169, 173-174, 179, 180-182, 295, 305, 307

male pubertal maturation, 119, 262

marriage, age at, 192, 197, 203, 204

menopause, 104, 105, 119-120, 186-187, 296

polygyny, 189, 192

population growth, 9



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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective Index A Add Health, see National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Additive, Common, Environment (ACE) models, 65-68, 340, 342-344 Adolescence and adolescents, 6, 210, 262, 313 see also Puberty child care by, 209 energy needs, 305 evolutionary anthropology, 11, 268-269 family size and antisocial behavior, 19 fertility rates, 19 growth spurt, 11, 144, 261, 264-266, 267, 268, 296, 298, 300 rites of passage, 307 sexual behavior, 52, 118-119, 261-279 (passim) surveys of, 6, 56, 346-347 Adoptee studies, viii, 6, 21, 28, 353 Adrenal gland, 11, 106, 115, 119, 303 male pubertal maturation, 119, 262, 265, 266, 269, 270, 271, 273, 277, 278 stress, 123, 126, 128 Adrenarche, 119, 265, 266, 267, 271, 279, 301 Africa AIDS, 20 baboon study, 8-9, 127, 141, 142, 143-164, 310 South Africa, 205, 333-328, 377 Age factors, 9, 10, 15 see also Adolescence and adolescents; Growth; Longevity; Puberty adoptee studies, parental age, 28 AIDS, 20 animal studies, 11-12, 140-164 (passim) emotional development, 302, 306-307, 313-314 evolutionary anthropology, 10, 11-12, 140-169, 173-174, 180-182 fertility transition, 63-64 first attempt at pregnancy, age at, 57 first pregnancy, age at, 19, 34, 53, 64, 84, 171, 186, 204, 205, 262, 274 hormonal factors, 104, 116-120 life history theory, 11-12, 140-169, 173-174, 179, 180-182, 295, 305, 307 male pubertal maturation, 119, 262 marriage, age at, 192, 197, 203, 204 menopause, 104, 105, 119-120, 186-187, 296 polygyny, 189, 192 population growth, 9

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective puberty, age at, 21, 23, 119, 126, 153, 158, 262, 274 secondary sexual characteristics, 111-112, 117 senescence, 173-174 sexual behavior, general, 4, 19, 49, 52, 117, 119 Agriculture evolutionary anthropology, 10, 171, 182, 185-186, 187-188, 192-198 horticulture, 10, 185-186, 187-188, 189, 206 AIDS, 20, 32, 314 Amino acids, 106, 108 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 106, 107, 108 oxytocin (OT), 7, 94-95, 96, 99-100 Androgens, 111, 115, 116, 119, 120, 121 see also Testosterone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 119, 261-273 (passim), 276, 277-279 Animal studies, 15, 140-169, 302 see also Baboons; Macaques; Primates, nonhuman age factors, 11-12, 140-164 (passim) evolutionary anthropology, 10, 11 see also Life history theory hormonal factors, 114, 115, 123 longevity, 2, 8-9, 140, 145-146 male puberty, 261, 264-265, 279 male testes size, 260-261 mating patterns, 92, 93, 97, 155 neurology of pair bonding, 7, 92-93, 95, 96-99, 100 parental investment, 172, 178, 182 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 11, 29, 225-234, 240-241, 244, 251 stress, 126-127 Anorexia nervosa, 123-124 Anthropology, 2, 9-12, 13, 15, 170-223, 265, 289 see also Agriculture; Life history theory; Racial/ethnic factors; Sociocultural factors foraging and hunting, 170-171, 174, 179-188 (passim), 198, 199, 213, 305, 309, 334, 338 historical perspectives, 10, 142, 192-213 medical science, 175, 199, 207-208 mortality, 141-142, 173, 175, 176, 180-182, 183, 188, 193, 199, 204-205, 210, 297 baboons, 145-148, 149, 150, 156, 160, 161 chimpanzees, 180, 181 infant mortality, 148, 149, 150, 156, 160, 161, 199 juvenile, 298, 299 sexual behavior, 195, 341 socioeconomic status, 199-202, 210, 212 Antisocial behavior, 313 family size and, 19 hormonal factors, 127, 302 neurochemistry of pair bonding, 98 twin studies, 26 Arginine vasopressin (AVP), 95-96, 99 Assisted conception, 19, 31 fertility drugs, 18, 19, 106, 108 Assortative mating, 26, 29 Attitudes and beliefs, vii, 1, 6, 48-49, 52, 348 see also Antisocial behavior, Behavioral genetics; Decision making; Depression; Sociocultural factors contraceptive use, 121 dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 264, 269, 276 male pubertal maturation, 262 risk taking, 11, 15, 22, 34-35, 190, 268, 272-273 sexual behavior, 115-116, 252 twin studies, 23-24, 75 Autism, 18, 22, 100 AVP, see Arginine vasopressin B Baboons, 8-9, 127, 141, 142, 143-164, 310 Behavioral genetics, 1, 2, 4-6, 7, 15, 18-45, 46-57, 261-262, 339, 342-347 see also Genetic factors; Molecular genetics; Twin studies autism, 19 courtship, 5, 240-241 employment, 31 ethical research, 4, 35-38, 39

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective family planning, 4, 19, 49 family size, 4, 19, 30, 59, 71-72, 80-81, 84 imprinting, 29, 241-244 models, 25, 46, 47, 49, 54-57, 64-84, 340, 342-347 multivariate analysis, 49, 64-68, 82 neural basis for pair bonding, 91-103 pair bonding, 4, 5, 7, 19-21, 26, 30, 34, 51, 52, 97-98 racial/ethnic factors, 19, 24, 32, 46-47 study at hand, methodology, 1, 2 Beliefs, see Attitudes and beliefs Between Zeus and the Salmon, 2 Biomarkers, 6, 14-15, 196, 238, 340, 346, 347, 348, 352 Birth control, see Contraception and contraceptives; Family planning Birth weight baboon life histories, 144 twin studies, 22, 63 Body size/weight see also Growth life history theory, 141, 142, 144, 155-156, 162, 178, 305 energetics, 173, 175 testes size, 118, 227, 260-261, 265-266 Brain, see Neurology Brazil, 12, 328-333, 377 Breast-feeding, see Lactation and breast-feeding Bride wealth, 188-189, 190-192, 196, 206, 207 C Capital, embodied, 10, 174-175, 180, 199-202, 208, 303-304 Cells and Surveys, 3, 6 Coevolution, 29, 304, 340 parental investment, 10, 175, 176-177 Red Queen process, 229-230 sexually antagonistic adaptation, 11, 29, 225-234, 240-241, 244, 251 diseases related to, 226, 231, 232, 233, 244-247, 250, 251 DNA, 234, 235, 242 monogamy, 226-227, 234-235, 250, 252 sociocultural factors, 236, 237 sperm and semen, 226, 227, 228, 233, 239, 244-247 Cognitive abilities, 52, 98, 99, 126, 262, 264, 269, 278 see also Educational attainment intelligence, 52, 60, 269 language, 306, 309 life history theory, 290-291, 294, 302, 303, 305, 306, 308, 309 memory, 269, 270, 278, 303 Cohort studies, 52 education and fertility transition, 60-84 single-parent families, 203-204, 275-276 twins, 24-25, 55-56, 60-84, 342-347 Contraception and contraceptives, 1, 3, 7, 13, 29, 105, 120-121, 240, 348 see also Family formation; Family planning; Family size Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 106, 300 Cortisol, 261-262, 269-272 (passim), 275-278 (passim) Courtship behavioral genetics, 5, 240-241 bride wealth, 188-189, 190-191, 196, 206, 207 CRH, see Corticotropin-releasing hormone Cultural factors, see Sociocultural factors; Socioeconomic status D Death rates, see Mortality rates Decision making, vii, 1, 13, 14, 15, 53, 208-212 see also Attitudes and beliefs; Pair bonding adolescent sexual behavior, 52, 272 child quality vs. quantity, 12-13, 14, 50, 147-148, 149, 150, 162, 172, 184, 201-202, 323-338 gender factors, 345-346 hormonal factors, 104-105 life cycle, 53-54, 104-105 rational choice models, 12, 48, 322-338 risk taking, 11, 15, 22, 34-35, 190, 268, 272-273

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective unplanned fertility, vii Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 119, 261-273 (passim), 276, 277-279 depression, 264, 269 Demography, traditional, 12-14, 15, 16, 46, 47-48, 50, 55, 128-129, 339-353 see Age factors; Educational attainment; Epidemiology; Genetic factors; Marriage and marital status; Mortality rates; Sociocultural factors; Socioeconomic status Denmark, 53, 58, 60-84, 342-347 Depression, 314 adolescents, 6 dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 264, 269 fertility and, 106 twin studies, 22, 27 Developing countries, vii, 12, 14, 200, 201, 205 ethical research, 37 hormonal studies, 113, 129 rational choice models, 322 socioeconomic status, 50 DHEA, see Dehydroepiandrosterone Diet, see Nutrition and diet Diseases and disorders, 314 see also Medical care services; Mental illness AIDS, 20, 32, 314 anorexia nervosa, 123-124 hormone-related, 117, 121, 122, 123-128 infertility, 1, 3, 32, 121-122, 126, 232, 302 coevolution, sexually antagonistic, 232 fertility drugs, 18, 19, 106, 108 lordosis, 117 menopause, related to, 120 nutritional, 123-125, 129 pregnancy complications, 27 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 226, 231, 232, 233, 244-247, 250, 251 sexually transmitted diseases, 20, 32, 244-247, 251, 314 twin studies, 27 Divorce, 20, 34, 126, 182-183, 203-204 DNA, 50, 293, 347 pair bonding, 97-98 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 234, 235, 242 Dowries, see Bride wealth Drugs abuse, 96-97, 100-101, 314 antipsychotic, 18 dopamine system effects, 96, 100-101 fertility, 18, 19, 106, 108 hormonal therapies, 114, 115, 119, 120 oxytocin receptor blockers, 96-97 pair bonding and, 96-97, 100-101 stress-reducing, 126 E Ecological factors, 8, 11, 13, 139, 170-223 hormonal mediation, 125, 129 life history theory, 142, 143, 150, 153, 155, 158, 161-162, 163, 164, 289, 297, 313 mating arrangements, 10, 91, 100 Economic factors, 1, 12, 13, 48 see also Developing countries; Employment; Parental investment; Socioeconomic status adolescent pregnancies, 52 capital, embodied, 10, 174-175, 180, 199-202, 208, 303-304 evolutionary anthropology, 170-223 (passim) funding, ethical research, 37 models, 175-177, 186-187, 201-202 rational choice models, 12, 48, 322-338 social, general, 307-310 Education, 50, 309-310 investment, 12-13, 14, 50, 147-148, 149, 150, 162, 172, 184, 201-202, 323-338 mass media, 209, 210 school experiences, 6, 209-210 Educational attainment, 12, 47, 50, 51, 53, 332-333 divorce, 203-204 evolutionary anthropology, 199, 200-204, 208

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective parental, 203-204, 325, 327 fertility transition, 58-84, 199, 200-203, 322, 325, 327, 328-333 quality vs. quantity, 12-13, 14, 50, 147-148, 149, 150, 162, 172, 184, 201-202, 323-338 twin studies, 5, 23, 24-25, 26, 61-84, 345 Embodied capital, 10, 174-175, 180, 199-202, 208, 303-304 Emotional factors, 92, 99, 100-101, 105 life history theory, 302, 306-307, 313-314 Employment, 31, 52, 54, 198-199, 201 fertility transition, 61-65, 83, 323-324, 327-332 gender factors, 12, 50, 54, 61-65, 83, 199-200, 203, 204-205, 211-212, 323-324, 327-332, 350-351 twin studies, 61 Endocrinology, see Androgens; Contraception and contraceptives; Hormonal processes; Steroids; Testosterone Energy, energetics, 289-321 see also Nutrition and diet body growth, 266-267 lactation and breast-feeding, 181-182, 183, 185 life history theory and, 289, 292-297, 302-303, 305 parental investment, 8, 12, 50, 175-176, 181-187 pubertal maturation, 266-267, 268, 296, 298 stress, 8, 105, 111, 122, 123-125 Environmental factors, vii, 7, 29, 35, 48, 49, 53, 65-66, 170 see also Behavioral genetics; Foraging and hunting; Medical care services; Nutrition and diet; Sociocultural factors; Stress Additive, Common, Environment models, 65-68, 340 adoptee studies, 28 hormonal interactions, 111 hormones, exposure to, 120-122 life history theory, 176, 290, 310-314 menarche, 298 twin studies, 21-28, 65-66, 74, 75, 83-84 Epidemiology, 32, 122 Epigenesis, 50, 291, 304, 310-312 Estimation, 55 probit, 69-73, 80-81 Estradiol, 107, 108, 111, 112, 121, 122, 301 Estrogen, 94, 105, 108, 111-112, 113-116 (passim), 120 environmental exposure to, 121-122 pubertal activation, 111, 119, 263-264 Ethical issues, research, 3-4, 35-38, 39 Ethnic factors, see Racial/ethnic factors Evolutionary factors, 8, 9, 11-12, 13, 28-30, 48-49, 57-58, 260, 289 see also Coevolution anthropological considerations, 10, 11-12, 140-169, 170-223 age factors, 10, 11-12, 140-169, 173-174, 180-182 agriculture, 10, 171, 182, 185-186, 187-188, 192-198 gender factors, 9, 10, 145-147, 150-160 (passim), 188-198, 208-209 immune system, 232, 244-247, 250, 251 life history theory, 161, 164, 170-223, 290-293, 297, 299, 311-312 medical science, 175, 199, 207-208 mutation, 7, 34, 58, 83, 98, 100, 231, 235, 260 pair bonding, 93 coevolution, sexually antagonistic, 11, 29, 224-252 pubertal maturation in males, 260-261, 268, 277 quality vs. quantity, 333-335 rational choice models, 12, 48, 322-338 study at hand, methodology, 1 F Family formation, 5, 11, 14, 15, 32, 314 see also Parenting, other adoptee studies, viii, 6, 21, 28, 353 male pubertal maturation, 119, 262 quality vs. quantity, 12-13, 14, 50, 147-148, 149, 150, 162, 172, 184, 201-202, 323-338

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective stress related to, 126 Family planning, 51 see also Contraception and contraceptives assisted conception, 19, 31 fertility drugs, 18, 19, 106, 108 genetic factors, 4, 19, 49 longitudinal studies, 15, 55 Family size, vii, 1, 19 see also Fertility transition antisocial behavior and, 19 behavioral genetics, 4, 19, 30, 59, 71-72, 80-81, 84 body size and, 142 life history theory/evolutionary anthropology, 157-158, 173, 201-202, 294 polygyny, harems, 194-195, 197 quality vs. quantity, 12-13, 14, 50, 147-148, 149, 150, 162, 172, 184, 201-202, 323-338 racial/ethnic factors, 19, 208-209 Farming, see Agriculture; Horticulturalism Fecundity, 1, 3, 19, 32 see also Infertility definitional issues, 20 female, 19, 20, 146-147, 198, 260 individual, 52 penetration of ovum, 111, 112 sperm counts, 19, 119, 122, 261 Females, see Gender factors Fertility rates, 18-20, 32, 48-49 see also Fertility transition; Infertility adoptee studies, 28 baboon life histories, 143-161 (passim) behavioral genetics, 18-45 evolutionary anthropology, 170-213 (passim) fertility mediation, 104-139 life history theory, 143-161 (passim), 290-292 mentally ill persons, 18-19 quality vs. quantity, 12-13, 14, 50, 147-148, 149, 150, 162, 172, 184, 201-202, 323-338 rational choice models, 322 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 11, 29, 224-252 socioeconomic status, 12-13, 58, 61, 322, 323-328 stress, impact on, 105, 122-128 twin studies, 21-28, 56(n.2), 62, 342-347, 353 Fertility transition, 12, 13, 14, 53, 58-60, 200, 207-208, 322, 350-352 age factors, 63-64 employment factors, 61-65, 83, 323-324, 327-332 gender factors, 58, 59, 61-65, 68-69, 78, 79 medical care, 58-59 quality vs. quantity, 12-13, 14, 50, 147-148, 149, 150, 162, 172, 184, 201-202, 323-338 socioeconomic status, 12-13, 58, 61, 322, 323-328 Fitness, 8, 10, 12 age-specific social support, 3 reproductive, 28 Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 106-113 (passim), 120, 123, 124, 300 Food, see Nutrition and diet Foraging and hunting, 10, 93, 350 evolutionary anthropology, 170-171, 174, 179-188 (passim), 198, 199, 213, 305, 309, 334, 338 life history theory, 143, 145, 150-162 (passim), 305 FSH, see Follicle-stimulating hormone Funding, ethical research, 37 G GABA, see Gamma-aminobutyric acid Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 263, 265, 277-278 Gathering and hunting, see Foraging and hunting Gender and Generation Programme (UN), 351 Gender factors, 32, 140, 197, 350-351 see also Hormonal processes; Marriage and marital status; Mating patterns; Menstrual cycle, phases; Pair bonding; Parent-child bonding; Pregnancy; Secondary sexual characteristics; Sexual behavior animal studies, 9, 92-95, 97 life history theory, 145-147, 150-160 (passim)

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective attitudes, vii bride wealth, 188-192, 196, 206, 207 coevolution, sexually antagonistic, 11, 29, 224-252 diseases related to, 226, 231, 232, 233, 244-247, 250, 251 DNA, 234, 235, 242 decision making, 345-346 educational attainment, 25, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 68-69, 78, 208, 211-212, 328-332 employment, 12, 50, 54, 61-65, 73, 83, 199-200, 203, 204-205, 211-212, 323-324, 327-332, 350-351 evolutionary anthropology, 9, 10, 145-147, 150-160 (passim), 188-198, 208-209 female fecundity, 19, 20, 146-147, 198, 260 fertility transition, 58, 59, 61-65, 68-69, 78, 79 imprinting, 29, 241-244 life history theory, 145-147, 150-160 (passim), 305 male pubertal maturation, 260-288 menarche, 11, 49, 118, 124, 266, 298 baboon life histories, 144, 147, 153 menopause, 104, 105, 119-120, 186-187, 296 menstrual cycle, phases, 48, 109, 110, 111, 112-113 baboon life histories, 147 sexual desire and behavior, 115, 116, 236, 237-239 stress, 123-124 parental investment, 172-190 (passim), 195-196, 198, 208-209, 277 males, preference for, 261 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 224, 228-229, 239-240, 247-250 single-parent families, 203-204, 275-276 smoking, 25 socioeconomic status, 9 sperm counts, 19 twin studies, 25, 27, 61-65, 68-69, 78, 79, 83, 344 Genetic factors, vii, 1, 3, 11, 13, 15, 18-45, 339-353 see also Behavioral genetics; Evolutionary factors; Molecular genetics; Twin studies biomarkers, 6, 14-15, 196, 238, 340, 346, 347, 348, 352 educational attainment, 5 epigenesis, 50, 291, 304, 310-312 ethical research, 4, 35-38, 39 imprinting, 29, 241-244 mutation, 7, 34, 58, 83, 98, 100, 231, 235, 260 puberty, 118, 260-279 (passim) study at hand, methodology, 1, 2 GnRH, see Gonadotropin-releasing hormone Gonadarche, 264, 265, 266, 295 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 106, 107, 108-109, 112, 113, 116-117, 118, 264, 265, 268, 300 stress, 123, 124 Growth, 171, 173 see also Body size/weight energy requirements, 266-267 fetal, 29, 242 hair, 111, 118, 119 hormonal influences, 108, 300 imprinting, 242, 243, 244 infant, 9, 198 life history theory, 154, 155, 158, 293, 295, 296, 298-299, 301, 305, 314 neural control of, 106 pubertal, 11, 144, 261, 264-266, 267, 268, 296, 298, 300 stress, 249 H Hair, 111, 117, 118, 119 Heritability, 4-5, 15, 22-25 (passim), 30, 31, 33, 34, 46-90, 164, 207, 209, 236, 274, 275, 343-344, 346 Hippocampus, 269, 270 Historical perspectives, vii, 2 ethical research, 36 evolutionary anthropology, 10, 142, 192-213 life history theory, 292, 303-304 rational choice models, 322, 334

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective HIV, see AIDS Hormonal processes, vii, 1, 3, 7-8, 11, 13, 16, 51, 104-139 see also Androgens; Contraception and contraceptives; Steroids; Testosterone age factors, 104, 116-120 behavioral regulation, 35, 94-95, 98-99, 104, 105, 113-116 biomarkers, 6, 14-15, 196, 238, 340, 346, 347, 348, 352 corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 106, 300 decision making, 104-105 dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 119, 261-273 (passim), 276, 277-279 diseases related to, 117, 121, 122, 123-128 ecological factors, 125, 129 environmental exposure to, 120-122 estradiol, 107, 108, 111, 112, 121, 122, 301 estrogen, 94, 105, 108, 111-112, 113-116 (passim), 120 environmental, 121-122 pubertal activation, 119, 263-264 fertility, hormonal mediation, 104-139 follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 106-113 (passim), 120, 123, 124, 300 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 106, 107, 108-109, 112, 113, 116-117, 118, 264, 265, 268, 300 stress, 123, 124 growth, 108, 300 immune system, 127, 302 lactation, 105, 111-112, 125 life history theory and, 291, 298, 299-303 lutenizing hormone (LH), 106-113 (passim), 123, 238, 300 maternal nurturing, 94 oxytocin, 7, 94-95, 96, 99-100 pair bonding, 94-95, 98-99 pregnancy, 94, 105, 116-118 progesterone, 107, 108, 112, 114, 121 sexual behavior, 35, 94-95, 98-99, 104, 105, 113-119 (passim), 121, 261-279 (passim) stress, impact on, 105, 122-128 therapeutic drugs, 114, 115, 119, 120 vasopressin, 7, 95-100 (passim) Horticulturalism, 10, 185-186, 187-188, 189, 206 Hunting, see Foraging and hunting Hypothalamus, 94, 95, 106, 107, 112, 114, 116, 120, 300, 301, 303 puberty, 118, 264, 266, 267, 269, 270 stress, 123, 125-128 (passim) vasopressin, 7, 95-100 (passim) I Immune system, 175, 264, 277, 300, 302 AIDS, 20, 32, 314 evolution of, 232, 244-247, 250, 251 hormonal mediation, 127, 302 mood, impacts on, 302 Imprinting, genetic, 29, 241-244 Income, wages, 50 Individual differences, 51 fecundity, 52 marriage choices, 51 Infant mortality, 20, 32, 58, 59, 148, 149, 150, 156, 160, 161, 199 Infertility, 1, 3, 32, 121-122, 126, 302 coevolution, sexually antagonistic, 232 fertility drugs, 18, 19, 106, 108 mental illness and, 18, 32, 106, 108 Intelligence dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 269 family size and, 60 sexual behavior of teens, 52 Interdisciplinary approaches, see Multidisciplinary approaches International perspectives, 12 see also Anthropology; Developing countries; Racial/ethnic factors; specific countries and world regions AIDS, 20 family size, 19 Gender and Generation Programme (UN), 351 parental investment, 197(n.3) pubertal timing, 274

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective L Lactation and breast-feeding, 94, 125, 182, 198, 210 energy requirements, 181-182, 183, 185 hormones, 105, 111-112, 125 Language abilities, 306, 309 Legal issues, see Ethical issues, research LH, see Lutenizing hormone Life history theory, 11-12 age factors, 11-12, 140-169, 173-174, 179, 180-182, 295, 305, 307 animal studies, baboons, 140-169 body size/weight, 141, 142, 144, 155-156, 162, 178, 305 energetics, 173, 175 cognitive abilities, 290-291, 294, 302, 303, 305, 306, 308, 309 ecological factors, 142, 143, 150, 153, 155, 158, 161-162, 163, 164, 289, 297, 313 emotional factors, 302, 306-307, 313-314 energetics, 289, 292-297, 302-303, 305 environmental factors, 176, 290, 310-314 evolutionary biology and, 161, 164, 170-223, 290-293, 297, 299, 311-312 fertility rates, 143-161 (passim), 290-292 foraging and hunting, 143, 145, 150-162 (passim), 305 gender factors, 145-147, 150-160 (passim), 305 historical perspectives, 292, 303-304 hormonal processes, 291, 298, 299-303 longevity, 140, 145-146, 180, 190 mortality, 141-142, 173, 175, 176, 180-182, 183, 188, 193, 199, 204-205, 210, 297 baboons, 145-148, 149, 150, 156, 160, 161 chimpanzees, 180, 181 infant mortality, 148, 149, 150, 156, 160, 161, 199 juvenile, 298, 299 neurology, 291, 300-303, 306 pregnancy, 173, 182, 298 sexual behavior, 147, 302 sociocultural factors, 187-213, 290-292, 294, 295, 300, 303-305, 313 baboons, 143, 144, 150, 156-161, 163 Longevity, 2 see also Mortality rates animal studies, 2, 8-9, 140, 145-146 life history theory, 140, 145-146, 180, 190 pastoralism, 190 Longitudinal studies, 6, 14-15, 32, 55, 56, 346-347 see also Cohort studies Lutenizing hormone (LH), 106-113 (passim), 123, 238, 300 M Macaques, 94, 114, 115, 118, 261 Males, see Gender factors Marriage and marital status, 10, 12, 49, 50, 52, 53, 195-196, 207, 209, 248 see also Divorce; Pair bonding behavioral genetics, 4, 5, 19-20, 34, 51, 52 bride wealth, 188-189, 190-191, 196, 206, 207 children born within/outside marriage, 19-20 divorce, 20, 34, 126, 182-183, 203-204 educational attainment, 51 monogamy, 92, 93-95, 96, 97, 162, 183, 196 male testes size and, 260-261 sexually antagonistic adaptation, 226-227, 234-235, 250, 252 number of, 6 polyandry, 92, 162, 197-198, 227, 234-240 polygamy, 97, 250, 261 polygyny, 92, 95, 97, 183, 184, 187, 188-189, 190-193, 194, 197, 205, 206, 250-251, 252 Mathematical models, 64-74, 148, 231, 324-326 Mating, see Pair bonding

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective Mating patterns, 10, 11, 20, 21, 70, 171, 183-189, 206-211 (passim) see also Marriage and marital status; Pair bonding; Sexual behavior animal studies, 92, 93, 97, 155 assortive, 26, 29 baboon life histories, 147, 159 divorce, 20, 34, 126, 182-183, 203-204 ecological factors, 10, 91, 100 life history theory, 147, 159, 310 monogamy, 92, 93-95, 96, 97, 162, 183, 196 male testes size and, 260-261 sexually antagonistic adaptation, 226-227, 234-235, 250, 252 parental investment and, 172-173, 184 polyandry, 92, 162, 197-198, 227, 234-240 polygamy, 97, 250, 261 polygyny, 92, 95, 97, 183, 184, 187, 188-189, 190-193, 194, 197, 205, 206, 250-251, 252 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 11, 29, 224-252 Maturation, pubertal, see Puberty Medical care services see also Drugs evolutionary anthropology, 175, 199, 207-208 fertility transition, 58-59 Memory, 269, 270, 278, 303 Men, see Gender factors Menarche, 11, 49, 118, 124, 266, 298 baboon life histories, 144, 147, 153 Menopause, 104, 105, 119-120, 186-187, 296 Menstrual cycle, phases, 48, 109, 110, 111, 112-113 baboon life histories, 147 sexual desire and behavior, 115, 116, 236, 237-239 stress, 123-124 Mental illness, 34, 314 see also Antisocial behavior; Depression infertility and, 18, 32, 106, 108 schizophrenia, 18, 22, 26, 28 twin studies, 26 Models and modeling behavioral genetics, 25, 46, 47, 49, 54-57, 64-84, 340, 342-347 life history theory/evolutionary anthropology, 143, 147-153, 156, 175-177, 201-202, 212-213, 289, 291, 296 male pubertal maturation, 261-262, 267, 271-273 mathematical, 64-74, 148, 231, 324-326 optimality, 186-187 parental investment in brain, 175-177, 201-202 rational choice/evolutionary biology, 12, 48, 322-338 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 228-233 twin studies, 25, 64-84, 342-347 Molecular genetics, 1, 4, 6, 15, 16, 34, 36, 46, 50 see also Behavioral genetics; Genetic factors; Proteins biomarkers, 6, 14-15, 196, 238, 340, 346, 347, 348, 352 DNA, 50, 293, 347 pair bonding, 97-98 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 234, 235, 242 mutation, 7, 34, 58, 83, 98, 100, 231, 235, 260 puberty, 118, 260-279 (passim) Moral issues, see Ethical issues Mortality rates, 55 see also Longevity AIDS, 20 education attainment and, 204-205 fertility transition, 58-59 infant mortality, 20, 32, 58, 59, 148, 149, 150, 156, 160, 161, 199 life history theory/evolutionary anthropology, 141-142, 173, 175, 176, 180-182, 183, 188, 193, 199, 204-205, 210, 297 baboons, 145-148, 149, 150, 156, 160, 161 chimpanzees, 180, 181 infant mortality, 148, 149, 150, 156, 160, 161, 199 juvenile, 298, 299 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 225, 236

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective Motivation, see Attitudes and beliefs Multidisciplinary approaches, 8, 289, 348 consilience, 46-47 study at hand, viii, 1 Multivariate analysis, 49, 64-68, 82 Mutation, 7, 34, 58, 83, 98, 100, 231, 235, 260 N National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, 6 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 56, 346-347 Neurology, 1, 7-8, 12, 14, 15-16, 57, 113-114, 116, 117, 125 see also Drugs; Hypothalamus biomarkers, 6, 14-15, 196, 238, 340, 346, 347, 348, 352 brain size, 10, 175, 176, 179, 184, 268, 295 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 263, 265, 277-278 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 106, 107, 108-109, 112, 113, 116-117, 118, 123, 124, 264, 265, 268, 300 imaging techniques, 16 life history theory and, 291, 300-303, 306 menarche, 298 neurotransmitters, 94-97, 106-108; see also specific neurotransmitters oxytocin, 7, 94-95, 96 pair bonding, 7-8, 16, 91, 94-103 oxytocin, 7, 94-95, 96, 99 steroids, 94 vasopressin, 95-96, 97, 98, 99 parental investment, 174, 175-177, 201-202 pregnancy, brain alterations, 14, 117-118 puberty, 118, 263-264, 268-279 sexual behavior, 99-100 steroids, 112, 113-114 vasopressin, 95-96, 97, 98, 99 Nutrition and diet see also Agriculture; Horticulturalism; Energy, energetics; Foraging and hunting; Pastoralism anorexia nervosa, 123-124 baboon life histories, 144 environmental estrogens, 121-122 genetic influences and, 30 infertility and, 32 life history theory, 144, 305 parental investment, 144, 173, 174, 181-182, 183, 185-186 see also Lactation and breast-feeding pastoralism, 171, 185-186, 189-192, 206-207 pubertal maturation, 276, 298-299 supplementation, 125, 153, 185, 190, 191, 290 undernutrition, 123-125, 129 O Oxytocin (OT), 7, 94-95, 96, 99-100 P Pair bonding, 7, 12, 16, 20, 49, 92-93, 95, 97, 348, 350 see also Mating patterns anthropology, evolutionary, 10, 172-173, 178, 182-187, 212, 340 divorce, 20, 34, 126, 182-183, 203-204 drug use and, 96-97, 100-101 evolution and, 93 coevolution, sexually antagonistic, 11, 29, 224-252 genetic factors, 4, 5, 7, 19-21, 26, 30, 34, 51, 52 hormonal factors, 94-95, 98-99 longitudinal studies, 15 neural basis, 7-8, 16, 91, 94-103 oxytocin, 7, 94-95, 96, 99 steroids, 94 vasopressin, 95-96, 97, 98, 99 parental investment and, 172-173, 178, 182-183, 261 primate studies, 96, 126-127 sociocultural factors, 4, 7, 91, 92, 236, 237, 275-276 testosterone, 261 twin studies, 21, 26 Parental investment, 170-212 (passim), 224, 294, 322-333

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective animal studies, 172, 178, 182 brain, 174, 175-177, 201-202 bride wealth, 188-189, 190-192, 196, 206, 207 coevolution, 10, 175, 176-177 energy/energetics, 8, 12, 50, 175-176, 181-187 gender factors, 172-190 (passim), 195-196, 198, 208-209, 277 males, preference for, 261 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 224, 228-229, 239-240, 247-250 mating patterns, 172-173, 184 neural factors, 174, 175-177, 201-202 nutrition, 144, 173, 174, 181-182, 183, 185-186 pair bonding, 172-173, 178, 182-183, 261 quality vs. quantity, 12-13, 14, 50, 147-148, 149, 150, 162, 172, 184, 201-202, 323-338 secondary sexual characteristics, 178 Parent-child bonding, 16, 349, 350 hormonal processes, 94 neurochemistry of, 99 twin studies, 22 Parenting, other see also Parental investment adoptee studies, 28 effort, 172, 211, 239, 249, 294 life history theory, 148, 290, 310 multiple social parents, 20, 205 provisioning, 10, 15, 73, 178-180, 183, 185, 211, 251, 261, 294, 295, 305, 313 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 247-250, 251 single-parent families, 203-204, 275-276 twin studies, 22 Pastoralism, 171, 185-186, 189-192, 206-207 Peer influences, 6, 56, 144, 147 Pituitary gland, 94, 95, 106, 107, 108, 112, 116, 120, 121, 125, 300, 301, 303 puberty, 118, 264, 266, 267, 269, 274 stress, impact on, 123, 125-128 (passim) vasopressin, 7, 95-100 (passim) Placenta, 27, 29, 116-117, 232 Polychlorinated hydrobiphenyls, 121 Population growth, vii, 147-151, 207 see also Fertility rates; Fertility transition Pregnancy, 260, 341, 349-350 see also Contraception and contraceptives; Family planning; Placenta adolescents, 52 age at first attempt at, 57 age at first pregnancy, 19, 34, 53, 64, 84, 171, 186, 204, 205, 262, 274 assisted conception, 19, 31 brain alterations, 14, 117-118 coevolution, sexually antagonistic, 232 duration, 173 hormonal factors, 94, 105, 116-118 life history theory, 173, 182, 298 placenta, 27, 29, 116-117, 232 twin studies, complications, 27 Primates, nonhuman, 140-169 baboons, 8-9, 127, 141, 142, 143-164 estrogen and sexual behavior, 115 lactation and breast-feeding, 183 macaques, 94, 114, 115, 118, 261 male puberty, 261, 264-265, 279 pair bonding, 96, 126-127 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 230-231 stress, 126-127 testosterone and sexual behavior, 114 Probit estimation, 69-73, 80-81 Progesterone, 107, 108, 112, 114, 121 Proteins, 34, 50, 111, 113, 227, 244, 347, 352 estrogens in, 122 growth, 301 pair bonding, 97, 99 Psychological factors, 11, 52, 289-291 see also Antisocial behavior; Attitudes and beliefs; Behavioral genetics; Depression; Mental illness emotional factors, 92, 99, 100-101, 105 life history theory, 302, 306-307, 313-314 stress, hormonal responses, 8, 105, 122-128, 129, 300, 301

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective Puberty, 49, 118-119, 260-288, 295 see also Adolescence and adolescents adrenal gland, 119, 262, 265, 266, 269, 270, 271, 273, 277, 278 adrenarche, 119, 265, 266, 267, 271, 279, 301 age at, 21, 23, 119, 126, 153, 158, 262, 274 energetics, 266-267, 268, 296, 298 estrogen, 111, 119, 263-264 evolutionary issues, 260-261, 268, 277 family formation and, 119, 262 gonadarche, 264, 265, 266, 295 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 116 growth spurt, 11, 144, 261, 264-266, 267, 268, 296, 298, 300 hypothalamus, 118, 264, 266, 267, 269, 270 menarche, 11, 49, 118, 124, 266, 298 baboon life histories, 144, 147, 153 neural factors, 118, 263-264, 268-279 pituitary gland, 118, 264, 266, 267, 269, 274 primate studies, 261, 264-265, 279 racial/ethnic factors, 274 sociocultural factors, 275-276 stress, 122-124, 126, 276 testosterone, 117, 118-119, 261, 263-264, 266-267, 270-278 (passim) twin studies, 23 Public health, see Medical care services Q Quality vs. quantity, 12-13, 14, 50, 147-148, 149, 150, 162, 172, 184, 201-202, 323-338 R Racial/ethnic factors, 32 behavioral genetics, 19, 24, 32, 46-47 family size, 19, 208-209 pregnancy, age at first, 205 pubertal timing, 274 twin studies, 24 Rational choice models, 12, 48, 322-338 Regression analysis, 55-56, 186, 187, 236-237 Risk taking, 11, 15, 22, 34-35, 190, 268, 272-273 S Sampling see also Cohort studies adoptee studies, 28 hormonal effects on sexual behavior, 115-116 twin studies, 23-25, 27-28 Schizophrenia, 18, 22, 26, 28 School experiences, 6, 209-210 Secondary sexual characteristics, 111-112, 117, 118, 119, 120, 123, 124, 268-269, 296, 301, 349 age factors, 111-112, 117 hair, 111, 117, 118, 119 parental investment and, 178 Sedentism, 187 Semen, see Sperm and semen Sex differences, see Gender factors; Hormonal processes; Secondary sexual characteristics Sexual behavior, 49, 92, 99-100, 340, 347-350 adolescents, 52, 118-119, 261-279 (passim) age factors, general, 4, 19, 49, 52, 117, 119 attitudes and beliefs about, 115-116, 252 baboon life histories, 147 behavioral genetics, 18, 19, 33, 341 coevolution, sexually antagonistic, 11, 29, 224-252 (passim) contraception and contraceptives, 1, 3, 7, 13, 29, 105, 120-121, 240 desire and, 8, 13, 16, 49, 119, 209 drugs, effect on, 106, 108 economic theories, 48 evolutionary anthropology, 195, 341 hormonal influences, 35, 94-95, 98-99, 104, 105, 113-119 (passim), 121, 261-279 (passim) life history theory, 147, 302 menstrual cycle, 115, 116, 236, 237-239 neurochemistry of, 99-100 parent-child bonding and, 16 promiscuity, 34

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective psychoactive drugs, impact on, 18 pubertal activation, 118-119 males, 261-279 (passim) risk taking, 11, 15, 22, 34-35, 190, 268, 272-273 Sexually transmitted diseases, 20, 32, 244-247, 251, 314 Smoking gender factors, 25 twin studies, 25 Sociocultural factors, 1, 3, 4, 11-12, 16, 18, 29-30 see also Anthropology; Racial/ethnic factors; Socioeconomic status adolescents, 11 ethical research, 3-4, 35-38, 39 hormonal interactions, 111, 114 language abilities, 306, 309 life history theory/evolutionary anthropology, 187-213, 290-292, 294, 295, 300, 303-305, 313 baboons, 143, 144, 150, 156-161, 163 male pubertal maturation, 275-276 mental illness, 18 nutritional hormone content, 122 pair bonding, 4, 7, 91, 92, 236, 237, 275-276 peer influences, 6, 56, 144, 147 quality vs. quantity, 12-13, 14, 50, 147-148, 149, 150, 162, 172, 184, 201-202, 323-338 sexually antagonistic coevolution, 236, 237 twin studies, 5, 26, 55-56, 345 Socioeconomic status, vii, 3, 9, 12-13, 32, 50-51, 53, 54 see also Educational attainment; Employment evolutionary anthropology, 199-202, 210, 212 fertility transition, 12-13, 58, 61, 322, 323-328 menarche, age at, 298 stratification, 171, 193-198, 207, 304 twin studies, 61 South Africa, 205, 333-328, 377 Soya, 122 Sperm and semen coevolution, sexually antagonistic, 226, 227, 228, 233, 239, 244-247 penetration of ovum, 111, 112 spermatogenesis, 108, 122, 261, 264 sperm counts, 19, 119, 122, 261 Statistical analyses see also Cohort studies; Estimation; Sampling behavioral genetics, general, 20, 49, 55-57, 64-84 epidemiological, 32, 122 estimation, 55, 69-73, 80-81 multivariate, 49, 64-68, 82 probit estimation, 69-73, 80-81 regression, 55-56, 186, 187, 236-237 socioeconomic parameters, 49, 55 Steroids, 94, 110, 111, 112, 117, 120-121, 301, 302 aging, 120 corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 106, 300 cortisol, 261-262, 269-272 (passim), 275-278 (passim) gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 106, 107, 108-109, 112, 113, 116-117, 118, 264, 265, 268, 300 stress, 123, 124 puberty, 118, 266, 278 sexual behavior, 113-115, 120-121 stress, 124, 301 testosterone, 35, 107, 111, 112, 114, 127, 301 pubertal activation, 117, 118-119, 261, 263-264, 266-267, 270-278 (passim) Stratification, 171, 193-198, 207, 304 Stress adrenal gland, 123, 126, 128 animal studies, 126-127 drugs to palliate, 126 energy requirements, 8, 105, 111, 122, 123-125 family formation, 126 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), 123, 124 growth and, 249 hormonal influences, 105, 122-128 hypothalamus, 123, 125-128 (passim) male-male competition, 269

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Offspring: Human Fertility Behavior in Biodemographic Perspective menstrual cycle, 123-124 pituitary gland, 123, 125-128 (passim) puberty, 122-124, 126, 276 T Thalamus, 270 Testes, 106, 111, 264, 273, 277 see also Sperm and semen gonadarche, 264, 265, 266, 295 size, 118, 227, 260-261, 265-266 Testosterone, 35, 107, 111, 112, 114, 127, 301 pair bonding, 261 pubertal activation, 117, 118-119, 261, 263-264, 266-267, 270-278 (passim) Twin studies, viii, 5, 6, 21-28, 53-84, 342-347, 353 assumptions, 5, 21-23, 25, 26, 28, 54-56, 70, 344 attitude factors, 23-24, 75 birth weight, 22, 63 depression, 22, 27 educational attainment, 5, 23, 24-25, 26, 61-84, 345 employment, 61 environmental factors, 21-28, 65-66, 74, 75, 83-84 gender factors, 25, 27, 61-65, 68-69, 78, 79, 83, 344 pair bonding, 21, 26 sociocultural factors, 5, 26, 55-56, 345 socioeconomic status, 55 U United Kingdom, 19 United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 351 Urban areas, 198-199, 201, 205, 207, 314 V Vasopressin, 7, 95-100 (passim) W Warfare, 188-191 (passim), 193, 195, 206, 207 Women, see Gender factors