Applications and users (cont’d)

“Research studies on the socioeconomic aspects of climate and climate modeling should be undertaken at appropriate institutions to design the institutional and governmental structures required to provide effective climate services. The assessment should include:

1. an examination of present and future societal needs for climate information;

2. a diagnosis of existing institutional capabilities for providing climate services;

3. an analysis of institutional and governmental constraints for sustaining a climate observing system, modeling the climate system, communicating with the research community, and delivering useful climate information;

4. an analysis of the human resources available and needed to accomplish these tasks;

5. an analysis of costs and required solutions to remove the constraints in accomplishing the above tasks;

6. recommendations on the most effective form of institutional and governmental organization to produce and deliver climate information for the public and private sectors.” (pp. 7-8)

Improving the Effectiveness of U.S. Climate Modeling

(NRC, 2001c)


“Promote more effective use of the nation’s weather and climate observation systems.

• Inventory existing observing systems and data holdings....

• Promote efficiency by seeking out opportunities to combine the efforts of existing observation networks to serve multiple purposes in a more cost-effective manner....

• Create user centric functions within agencies....

• Perform user-oriented experiments....

• Create incentives to develop and promote observation systems that serve the nation.” (pp. 4-5)

A Climate Services Vision: First Steps Toward the Future

(NRC, 2001a)


“Interdisciplinary studies and capabilities are needed to address societal needs.

• Develop regional enterprises designed to expand the nature and scope of climate services....

• Increase support for interdisciplinary climate studies, applications, and education....

• Foster climate policy education....

• Enhance the understanding of climate through public education.” (p. 6)


aThe National Research Council (NRC) reports cited were all published by the National Academy Press (as of mid-2002 The National Academies Press), Washington, D.C., in the year indicated. They are also listed on p. 89.

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