bargaining in the traditional sense, workers’ views are being presented to management.

On the other hand, is collective bargaining taking place when the bargaining between unions and management occurs in a context in which workers have historically been forced to join unions, such as in Indonesia during the Suharto era? How can we determine the presence or absence of freedom of association and collective bargaining in cases where the demarcation lines between management and so-called worker representation are not obvious? One way to judge is to look at the content of the agreements and determine whether the agreements are available and agreeable to workers.



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