definition of human trafficking in a Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children. As defined in this convention, human trafficking includes the crimes described in Bales’s research, as well as additional forms of forced service and labor. Jordan said she prefers to speak about human trafficking, rather than using a “singular definition of slavery,” because it more accurately describes the problem, and it helps ensure that “all persons subjected to these crimes are counted.” She argued that it is important to document all the different types of forced labor and slavery. This includes the buying and selling of human beings; government acquiescence to such practices; forced labor in businesses, homes, factories, fields, and elsewhere; and forced or servile marriages, forced pregnancies, and domestic servitude.

Jordan called for continued research into all aspects of human trafficking to ensure that all victims are counted. She agreed with Bales on the need for economic and business analyses of the problems of slavery and trafficking, as well social science research into the social and cultural forces that “make human trafficking possible.” Finally, she supported Bales’s suggestion that researchers “document the lived experience” of being a victim of human trafficking. She called for “honest and accurate information” in order to “develop effective interventions at all points in the trafficking chain.” She concluded by saying data are “desperately needed at every level and in every country.” Without more accurate and reliable data, she said, progress in combating trafficking would be slow, and assistance and protection for its victims would be scarce.

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