tion; targeting locations where child labor is concentrated; and poverty programs that target characteristics of poverty that contribute to child labor (Grootaert and Patrinos, 1999).

As part of this gradual approach, Patrinos said, countries could allow a flexible school schedule so that children could do some work and attend school at night or on weekends. Because school incentive programs have proven very effective at reducing child labor, Patrinos suggested including more information on Mexico’s Progresa (now known as Opurtunidades) program. In this program, the government provides cash payments to low-income families of children who regularly attend school. Rigorous evaluations (see, for example, Krueger, 2002; Coady and Parker, 2002) have demonstrated that the program reduces child labor and increases educational levels among the poor.

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