FIGURE 1.1 The convergence of four independent technological advances has the potential to transform the world.

specific information anywhere, anytime. The Global Positioning System (GPS) allows users to calculate physical locations quickly and reliably.

  • Databases and data mining. The escalating availability of digital information has prompted the development of hardware and software systems capable of managing extremely large data sets. Improvements in geospatial database techniques and data mining can improve our ability to analyze the vast amount of data being collected and stored.

  • Human-computer interaction with geospatial information. Visualization and related virtual/augmented1 technologies, multimodal interfaces,


Augmented reality systems enhance a user’s view of a real scene with computer-generated information.

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