use of
LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS
in 21st century
ARMY TRUCKS

Committee on Lightweight Material for 21st Century Army Trucks

National Materials Advisory Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks use of LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS in 21st century ARMY TRUCKS Committee on Lightweight Material for 21st Century Army Trucks National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. DAAE07-00-C-L042 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08869-0 Available in limited quantities from the National Materials Advisory Board, http://www.nationalacademies.org/nmab Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks COMMITTEE ON LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR 21ST CENTURY ARMY TRUCKS HARRY A. LIPSITT, Chair, Wright State University (emeritus), Yellow Springs, Ohio RODICA A. BARANESCU, International Truck and Engine Corporation, Melrose Park, Illinois JOHN V. BUSCH, Consultant, Waltham, Massachusetts GLENN S. DAEHN, Ohio State University, Columbus LARRY J. HOWELL, General Motors Research and Development Center (retired), Royal Oak, Michigan MANISH MEHTA, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, Michigan WALTER D. PILKEY, University of Virginia, Charlottesville OLEG D. SHERBY, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California NRC Staff BONNIE A. SCARBOROUGH, Program Officer (from August 2002) JULIUS CHANG, Senior Program Officer (until April 2002) PATRICIA A. WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant Government Liaisons BENEDICT DEMARCO, National Automotive Center (NAC), U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC) VICKIE T. FURMAN, NAC, TARDEC DONALD OSTBERG, NAC, TARDEC PAUL F. SKALNY, NAC, TARDEC

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Chair, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico JOHN ALLISON, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan PAUL BECHER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee BARBARA BOYAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia FIONA DOYLE, University of California, Berkeley GARY FISCHMAN, Consultant, Palatine, Illinois HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University, Columbus JOHN J. GASSNER, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, Natick, Massachusetts ARTHUR C. GOSSARD, University of California, Santa Barbara THOMAS S. HARTWICK, TRW, Redmond, Washington ARTHUR H. HEUER, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio FRANK E. KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan ENRIQUE J. LAVERNIA, University of California, Davis TERRY LOWE, Metallicum LLC, Santa Fe, New Mexico ALAN G. MILLER, Boeing Commercial Airplane Group, Seattle, Washington ROBERT C. PFAHL, JR., Motorola Advanced Technology Center (retired), Glen Ellyn, Illinois HENRY J. RACK, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina LINDA SCHADLER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York JAMES C. SEFERIS, University of Washington, Seattle T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois NRC Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Director

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks Preface With future truck purchases in mind, Paul Skalny of the National Automotive Center (NAC), U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC), asked the National Research Council (NRC) to perform a study under the auspices of the National Materials Advisory Board. Dr. Skalny is program manager of the National Automotive Center, the goals of which include improving the fuel efficiency of several classes of Army tactical wheeled vehicles. One approach to increasing fuel efficiency is to decrease vehicle weight. The NRC Committee on Lightweight Materials for 21st Century Army Trucks was asked to identify research and technology development opportunities related to the introduction of new lightweight structural materials for light, medium, and heavy Army trucks. To address these objectives, the committee was asked to perform the following tasks: Investigate materials, processes, and structural concepts that will be candidates for advanced truck applications for the Army; Review the technical state of the art in lightweight structural materials and low-cost processing technology for automotive and truck applications, including advanced steels, wrought and cast aluminum, magnesium, titanium monolithic alloys, polymer matrix composites, and metal matrix composites; Identify critical properties, design issues, maintenance issues, potential failure mechanisms, and end-of-life disposal or recycling processes for advanced materials and processes; Recommend research and development opportunities and programs to evaluate and develop new advanced materials, processes, and structural concepts for advanced Army truck applications; and Recommend methods for TACOM to coordinate its advanced materials research efforts with industry and other federal agencies.

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks Committee members were chosen for their expertise in mechanical, chemical, and metallurgical processes; inspection and repair; engine systems and fuel efficiency; new materials systems; and the economics involved in the introduction of new materials into automobiles and trucks. The committee held four meetings to gather information and to deliberate. This report is the result of those deliberations. As a result of its early investigations, the committee came to believe that addressing new materials technologies and the processes for preparing and handling structural materials did not adequately address the charge. It was decided that it was also necessary to consider and discuss the process of introducing new lightweight structural materials, as well as other means of reducing vehicle weight. This belief led the committee to consider, enumerate, and discuss factors peculiar to the Army that interfere with the easy and early introduction of new materials for Army trucks. An important means of reducing vehicle weight, in addition to using lightweight structural materials and improving fuel economy, is through the use of alternative power sources, such as hybrid electric powertrains. The engine, the heaviest single component in a truck, must have sufficient power to move the fully loaded vehicle under difficult conditions. This power is wasted, however, for the 80 percent of an average Army vehicle’s life that is spent partially loaded on paved roads at highway speeds. Because the use of alternative and hybrid power sources has such great potential for reducing engine size and, thereby, vehicle weight, the committee believed that it was appropriate to include a discussion, although not exhaustive, of such power sources in the report. Vehicle performance depends on a myriad of factors. It was not possible for the committee to predict improvements in fuel efficiency that might result from its recommendations with respect to research and development. Other work referenced in the report—for example, that of the Department of Energy’s Heavy Vehicle Technologies Program and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles—addresses potential fuel economy improvements from reduced engine size, the introduction of hybrid designs, and general reductions in vehicle weight. As chair, I wish to thank the committee members for their enthusiasm, dedication, and service. I also thank the meeting speakers for their hard work, insight, excellent presentations, and stimulating discussions. One

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks individual deserves special mention: Eddie Garcia, director of Government Marketing, served as host to the committee during its visit to Oshkosh Truck Corporation. Mr. Garcia and all of the other Oshkosh employees were completely open with the committee, a most unusual but satisfying occurrence. In addition, Mr. Garcia kept watch over the flow of conversation and, whenever he determined that another engineer with special knowledge was needed, saw to it that that person came quickly to lend his or her expertise. I believe that our report will serve the Army well for some years to come. Comments and suggestions can be sent via e-mail to NMAB@nas.edu or by fax to 202/334-3718. Harry A. Lipsitt, Chair Committee on Lightweight Materials for 21st Century Army Trucks

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks Acknowledgments The Committee on Lightweight Materials for 21st Century Army Trucks thanks the following individuals, who prepared and presented so much information: Hal Almand, National Automotive Center (NAC), U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development, and Engineering Center (TARDEC); Joseph Argento, Industrial Ecology Center, Picatinny Arsenal, U.S. Army; Richard Bazzy, Cost and System Analysis Office, TARDEC; Dale Boulton, AM General; James Brennan, Oshkosh Truck Corporation; Mike Church, Stewart and Stevenson; Paul Decker, Future Combat Systems Program, U.S. Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM); Elio DiVito, Research-Vedtronics Technology Area, TARDEC; James J. Eberhardt, U.S. Department of Energy; Pat Flaherty, U.S. Department of Energy; Eddie Garcia, Oshkosh Truck Corporation; Paul Geck, Ford Motor Company; Nancelee Halle, NAC, TARDEC; I.Carl Handsy, Engineering-MEPS Office, TARDEC; Robert M. Hathaway, Oshkosh Truck Corporation; Chad Johnson, Oshkosh Truck Corporation; Virgil Lambert, Readiness Operations Management Office, TACOM; Mathew Loew, Stewart and Stevenson Tactical Vehicle Systems, LLP; Steve Nimmer, Oshkosh Truck Corporation; Norbert Osborne, Oshkosh Truck Corporation; Donald Ostberg, NAC, TARDEC; George Schnell, Heavy Tactical Vehicles Program, TACOM; Chris Shakes, Oshkosh Truck Corporation; Paul F. Skalny, NAC, TARDEC; Philip S. Sklad, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Don Szkubiel, NAC, TARDEC; Mark Thomas, Oshkosh Truck Corporation; James A. Wank, Defense Products Marketing, Inc.; Dennis Wend, TACOM; James Zuwucki, Oshkosh Truck Corporation. The committee also wishes to recognize the outstanding liaison services of Ben DeMarco, Vickie Furman, Don Ostberg, and Paul Skalny, as well as Elio DiVito, Carl Handsy, and George Schnell. The National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB) liaison was T.S. Sudarshan. Dr. Sudarshan and Mr. Handsy were extremely valuable contributors to the committee’s understanding of

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks the processes involved in preparing specifications for and purchasing new trucks for the U.S. Army. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The contents of the review comments and the draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Thomas W. Eagar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; John A. S. Green, Consultant; Warren H. Hunt, Jr., Aluminum Consultants Group, Inc.; John J. Lewandowski, Case Western Reserve University; Christopher Magee, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Phillip S. Myers, University of Wisconsin; Philip S. Sklad, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; and Kathleen C. Taylor, General Motors Corporation (retired). Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by R. Stephen Berry of the University of Chicago. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Finally, we thank the staff of the NMAB, especially Julius Chang, later Toni Maréchaux, and finally Bonnie Scarborough, who served as study directors, and Pat Williams, senior project assistant, for their coordination, cooperation, and assistance throughout the entire process, including the editing and publication of this report.

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   13     Use of Trucks in the U.S. Army,   13     U.S. Army Tank-automotive and Armaments Command,   14     Trucks in the Legacy Force Fleet,   15     Future Army Trucks,   15     Strategy for Transforming the Army’s Truck Fleet,   16     Requirements of the Future Army Truck Fleet,   17     Role of New Materials in Meeting Future Needs,   23     Advantages of Lightweight Materials,   23     Previous Studies on Lightweight Materials for Vehicles,   24     Organization of the Report,   26 2   NEW MATERIALS AND PROCESSING OPPORTUNITIES   27     Introduction,   27     Selection of New Materials and Processes,   28     Repair and Disposal of New Materials,   32     Short-Term Opportunities,   33     Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys,   35     High-Strength Steels,   39     Improved Corrosion Resistance,   41     Other Commercially Available Technologies,   41     Medium-Term Opportunities,   42     Ferrous Materials,   43     Aluminum Alloys,   45     Magnesium Alloys,   46     Metal Matrix Composites,   47     Polymer Matrix Composites,   49     Improved Casting Technologies,   51     Long-Term Opportunities,   51     Titanium Alloys,   51     Net Shape Manufacturing,   52     Self-Repair, Self-Maintenance,   53

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks 3   ENABLING NEW TECHNOLOGY INSERTION   55     Barriers,   55     Few Design Cycles,   56     Low Production Volumes,   57     Improved Army Procurement Process,   58     Fuel-Efficiency Requirements,   58     Life-Cycle Assessment,   59     Best-Value Procurement,   60     Improved Maintenance System,   61     Design for Reduced Maintenance,   62     Systematic Replacement of Older Trucks,   62     Alternative Ownership Strategies,   63     Reducing the Cost of New Technology,   64     Modular Design,   64     Common Systems/Components and Standardization,   65     Radical Redesign Enabled by New Technologies,   66     Hybrid Electric Powertrains,   67     Fuel Cells,   68     Leveraging Commercial Technologies,   68     Government Programs,   69     Commercial Automotive Partnerships,   70     Joint Government-Industry Collaborations,   71 4   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   73     Opportunities for Research and Development,   73     Future Tactical Truck Strategy,   75     Bid Solicitation and Procurement Processes,   77     Leveraging Commercial Advances,   78     System for Tracking Vehicle Age and Condition,   79     Tracking New Materials for Repair and Disposal,   80     APPENDIXES         A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members,   85     B Alternative Power Sources,   89     C Acronyms and Abbreviations,   95

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Use of Lightweight Materials in 21st Century Army Trucks Tables ES-1   Summary of Opportunities for New Materials, Applications, and Research,   4 2-1   Performance Indices   (a)   Minimum Weight (Cost, Energy) Design: Stiffness and Strength,   34 (b)   Minimum Weight (Cost, Energy) Design: Crack Length,   35 (c)   Elastic Design,   36 2-2   Comparison of Properties of Some Steels, Aluminum Alloys, and Magnesium Alloys,   37 2-3   Ratios of Performance Indices for Aluminum and Magnesium Relative to Steel,   38 4-1   Summary of Opportunities for New Materials, Applications, and Research,   74

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