Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government

Workshop Report

Ad Hoc Committee on Ensuring the Quality of Government Information

Science, Technology, and Law Program

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu



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Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government: Workshop Report Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government Workshop Report Ad Hoc Committee on Ensuring the Quality of Government Information Science, Technology, and Law Program Policy and Global Affairs NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government: Workshop Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. Financial Support: The development of this report was supported by the United States Department of Energy, Department of Health and Human Services, Department of Labor, National Science Foundation, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08857-7 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academies Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government: Workshop Report THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government: Workshop Report AD HOC COMMITTEE ON ENSURING THE QUALITY OF GOVERNMENT INFORMATION DAVID KORN, Cochair (IOM), Senior Vice President for Biomedical and Health Sciences Research, Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC. ALAN B. MORRISON, Cochair, Irvine Visiting Fellow, Stanford University Law School, Palo Alto, CA, on leave as Director, Public Citizen Litigation Group, Washington, DC. FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Partner, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, DC. JOEL E. COHEN, (NAS), Abby Rockefeller Mauze Professor and Head, Laboratory of Populations, The Rockefeller University, and Professor of Populations, Columbia University, New York, NY. DONALD KENNEDY, (NAS/IOM), Editor-in-Chief, Science; President Emeritus and Bing Professor of Environmental Science Emeritus, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. RICHARD A. MERRILL (IOM), Daniel Caplin Professor of Law, University of Virginia Law School, Charlottesville, VA, and Senior of Counsel, Covington & Burling, Washington, DC. Project Staff ANNE-MARIE MAZZA, Study Director SUSIE BACHTEL, Staff Associate ALAN H. ANDERSON, Consultant Writer

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Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government: Workshop Report SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, AND LAW PANEL DONALD KENNEDY, (NAS/IOM), Editor-in-Chief, Science; President Emeritus and Bing Professor of Environmental Science Emeritus, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. RICHARD A. MERRILL, (IOM), Daniel Caplin Professor of Law, University of Virginia Law School, Charlottesville, VA, and Senior of Counsel, Covington & Burling, Washington, DC. FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Partner, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, DC. MARGARET A. BERGER, Suzanne J. and Norman Miles Professor of Law, Brooklyn Law School, Brooklyn, NY. PAUL D. CARRINGTON, Professor of Law, Duke University Law School, Durham, NC. JOE S. CECIL, Project Director, Program on Scientific and Technical Evidence, Division of Research, Federal Judicial Center, Washington, DC. JOEL E. COHEN, (NAS), Abby Rockefeller Mauze Professor and Head, Laboratory of Populations, The Rockefeller University and Professor of Populations, Columbia University, New York, NY. REBECCA S. EISENBERG, Robert and Barbara Luciano Professor of Law, University of Michigan Law School, Ann Arbor, MI. DAVID L. GOODSTEIN, Vice Provost and Professor of Physics and Applied Physics; Frank J. Gilloon Distinguished Teaching and Service Professor, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA. BARBARA S. HULKA, (IOM), Kenan Professor Emeritus, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. SHELIA JASANOFF, Pforzheimer Professor of Science and Public Policy Studies, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. ROBERT E. KAHN, (NAE), Chairman, CEO, and President, Corporation for National Research Initiatives, Reston, VA. DANIEL J. KEVLES, Stanley Woodward Professor of History, Yale University, New Haven, CT. DAVID KORN, (IOM), Senior Vice President for Biomedical and Health Sciences Research, Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC. ERIC S. LANDER, (NAS/IOM), Member, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Professor of Biology, MIT, Director, Whitehead Institute/MIT Center for Genome Research, and Geneticist, Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

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Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government: Workshop Report PATRICK A. MALONE, Partner, Stein, Mitchell & Mezines, Washington, DC. RICHARD A. MESERVE, Chairman, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC. ALAN B. MORRISON, Irvine Visiting Fellow, Stanford University Law School, Palo Alto, CA, on leave as Director, Public Citizen Litigation Group, Washington, DC. HARRY J. PEARCE, Chairman, Hughes Electronics Corporation, El Segundo, CA. HENRY PETROSKI, (NAE), A.S. Vesic Professor of Civil Engineering and Professor of History, Duke University, Durham, NC. CHANNING R. ROBERTSON, Ruth G. and William K. Bowes Professor and Dean of Faculty and Academic Affairs, School of Engineering; and Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA. PAMELA ANN RYMER, Circuit Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Pasadena, CA. Staff of Science, Technology, and Law Program ANNE-MARIE MAZZA, Director SUSIE BACHTEL, Staff Associate

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Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government: Workshop Report Acknowledgments We especially wish to thank the speakers participating in the workshops: Robert C. Ashby, U.S. Department of Transportation; Jane A. Axelrad, U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Joanne P. Carney, American Association for the Advancement of Science; Joe S. Cecil, Federal Judicial Center; Daniel Cohen, U.S. Department of Commerce; Neil R. Eisner, U.S. Department of Transportation; Steven Galson, U.S. Food and Drug Administration; Howard Garrison, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology; John D. Graham, U.S. Office of Management and Budget; R. Brooks Hanson, Science; Nancy Kirkendall, U.S. Department of Energy; Heather G. Miller, National Institutes of Health; Robert M. O’Keefe, Health Effects Institute; Barbara Pace, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Ellen Paul, American Institute of Biological Sciences; William Perry, U.S. Department of Labor; Richard J. Pierce, Jr., The George Washington University Law School; John M. Rodgers, Federal Aviation Administration; Joseph Rodricks, Environ International Corporation; Marilyn McMillen Seastrom, U.S. Department of Education; James Scanlon, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Fred Siskind, U.S. Department of Labor; Elaine G. Stanley, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Michael R. Taylor, Resources for the Future; Kevin Y. Teichman, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; and Lisa K. Westerback, U.S. Department of Commerce.

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Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government: Workshop Report This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity and evidence. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Martin David, University of Maryland; Jane Griffith, National Library of Medicine; Katharina Phillips, Council on Governmental Relations; and Albert Teich, American Association for the Advancement of Science. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. We also want to thank Andrew White and Virginia de Wolf of The National Academies Committee on National Statistics for their assistance and the staff of the Science, Technology, and Law Progam: Anne-Marie Mazza, Susie Bachtel, and consultant writer, Alan Anderson. David Korn and Alan Morrison Cochairs

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Ensuring the Quality of Data Disseminated by the Federal Government: Workshop Report Contents 1   Introduction   1 2   Overview of the OMB Guidelines and Agency Concerns   4 3   Draft Agency-Specific Guidelines   23     APPENDIXES         A Ad Hoc Committee Members’ Biographies   39     B STL Panel Members’ Biographies   41     C Workshop Agendas   46     D Combined Registrants for all Workshops   55

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