• consolidating nuclear materials in a few reliably protected sites;

  • counter-terrorism studies and methods;

  • developing and refining technologies for safe and efficient defueling, dismantling, and disposing of decommissioned nuclear powered submarines;

  • handling the legacy wastes from nuclear-weapons production;

  • transporting spent nuclear fuel;

  • developing standard, highly durable waste forms for immobilization of different types of HLW;

  • developing methods and techniques for extraction of HLW that has been stored in tanks for decades;

  • developing unified approaches to selection of geological media and sites for the HLW and SNF long-term storage and disposal; and

  • research and development on methods of processing SNF that produce much less radioactive waste than the PUREX process.

In light of the terrorist attacks that have occurred in the last few years, it is worth reiterating one of the above areas for collaboration, for emphasis. Russia and the United States should prioritize working together to protect nuclear facilities from thefts of nuclear materials and from terrorist acts. The threats are present and the dangers are significant, so action should be taken without delay.

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