inventories, and planned end points for each type of SNF in Russia and the United States. Chapter 3 covers the same topics, but for HLW. In Chapter 4, the committee makes recommendations on actions that should be taken in the near term to address or prevent imminent problems, on research, development, and implementation over longer time frames, and also identifies areas for collaboration. In some cases, the recommendations simply reinforce existing plans or call for expediting planned actions, whereas in others the recommendations draw attention to apparent gaps in planning.

Constraints on the time and resources for the project limited the committee’s coverage of sites and sources (specifically, the Siberian Chemical Combine at Tomsk, and the Pacific Fleet) and demanded that the committee bound its enquiry. Given the multiplicity and variation in details of interim and final end points, the committee concluded that the only feasible approach was to do an overview assessment of end points and not analyze specific options at specific sites.

Appendix A presents the statement of task for the study. Appendix B is a list of acronyms and abbreviations used in the report. Appendix C contains a brief biography of each member of the committee. Appendix D lists the meetings of the committee. Appendix E lists major laws, regulations, and other directives pertaining to radioactive waste and related issues.

1.1 DEFINITION OF TERMS

For the purposes of this committee, an end point for spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is a stable, safe, and secure disposition of the material that can be sustained. (See Sidebar 1.1 for definitions of high-level radioactive waste and other materials discussed in this report.) The committee divides end points into two categories: interim end points, which are temporary; and final end points, which are essentially permanent. Long-term storage is an interim end point that should be sustainably stable, safe, and secure for at least several decades, and even



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