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Committee on Family and Work Policies Eugene Smolensky and Jennifer Appleton Gootman, editors Board on Children, Youth, and Families Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the Na- tional Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medi- cine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the Foundation for Child Development, the Ford Foundation, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessar- ily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Workshop on Caring for Infants and Toddlers (2001 : Washington, D.C.) Working families and growing kids : caring for children and adolescents / Committee on Family and Work Policies ; Eugene Smolensky and Jennifer Appleton Gootman, editors. p. cm. "Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education." "This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. XXX between the National Academy of Sciences and the Foundation for Child Development, the Ford Foundation, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation." "This report is a product of the Committee on Family and Work Policies, a project of the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM)"--P. . A report based on presentations from a one-day October 2001 Workshop on Caring for Infants and Toddlers convened by the Committee, with additional data from other researchers and consultants. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-309-08703-1 (hardcover) -- ISBN 0-309-52587-X (PDF) 1. Child welfare--United States--Congresses. 2. Children of working parents--Care-- United States. 3. School-age child care--United States--Congresses. 4. Child development-- United States--Congresses. 5. Work and family--Government policy--United States--Con- gresses. I. Smolensky, Eugene. II. Gootman, Jennifer Appleton. III. Committee on Family and Work Policies (U.S.) IV. National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Children, Youth, and Families. V. National Research Council (U.S.). Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. VI. Title. HV741.W69 2001 362.70973--dc22 2003015125 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America. Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2003). Working Families and Growing Kids: Caring for Children and Adolescents. Committee on Family and Work Policies. Eugene Smolensky and Jennifer A. Gootman, eds. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Acad- emy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engi- neers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineer- ing programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is presi- dent of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Coun- cil is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON FAMILY AND WORK POLICIES EUGENE SMOLENSKY (Chair), Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California, Berkeley SUZANNE BIANCHI, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park DAVID BLAU, Department of Economics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill FRANCINE JACOBS, Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development/ Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning, Tufts University ROBIN JARRETT, Department of Human and Community Development, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign DONNA KLEIN, Work-Life Programs Department, Marriott International, Washington, DC SANDERS KORENMAN, School of Public Affairs, Baruch College, New York JOAN LOMBARDI, The Children's Project, Washington, DC JOSEPH MAHONEY, Department of Psychology, Yale University HARRIET PRESSER, Department of Sociology, University of Maryland, College Park GARY SANDEFUR, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison DEBORAH VANDELL, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison JANE WALDFOGEL, School of Social Work, Columbia University HIROKAZU YOSHIKAWA, Department of Psychology, New York University MARTHA ZASLOW, Child Trends, Washington, DC JENNIFER A. GOOTMAN, Study Director AMY GAWAD, Research Associate ELIZABETH TOWNSEND, Senior Project Assistant (from July 2002) MEREDITH MADDEN, Senior Project Assistant (until June 2002) v

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BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES MICHAEL COHEN (Chair), Department of Pediatrics, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine JAMES A. BANKS, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington, Seattle THOMAS DEWITT, Children's Hospital Medical Center of Cincinnati MARY JANE ENGLAND, Regis College, Weston, MA BRENDA ESKENAZI, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley MINDY FULLILOVE, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University PATRICIA GREENFIELD, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles RUTH T. GROSS, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine NEAL HALFON, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles MAXINE HAYES, Washington State Department of Health MARGARET HEAGARTY, Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, Columbia University RENEE R. JENKINS, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University HARRIET KITZMAN, School of Nursing, University of Rochester SANDERS KORENMAN, School of Public Affairs, Baruch College, New York HON. CINDY LEDERMAN, Circuit Court, Juvenile Justice Center, Miami, FL ELENA O. NIGHTINGALE, Scholar-in-Residence, Institute of Medicine GARY SANDEFUR, Departmnt of Sociology, University of Wisconsin- Madison RUTH STEIN, Department of Pediatrics, Montefiore Medical Center ELLEN WARTELLA, College of Communication, University of Texas at Austin ROBERT BLUM, (liaison from the Committee on Adolescent Health and Development), Center for Adolescent Health, University of Minnesota CATHERINE DEANGELIS, (liaison from the Institute of Medicine), American Medical Association JANE L. ROSS, Acting Director (after November 2002) SUSAN K. CUMMINS, Director (until November 2002) LISA TAYLOR, Senior Project Assistant vi

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Acknowledgments This report is a product of the Committee on Family and Work Poli- cies, a project of the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The 15-member committee met over an 18-month period to review and evaluate the science of early child and adolescent develop- ment and its application to policies and benefits that encourage, support, or require parents to participate in the paid labor force. The funding for this project was provided by the Foundation for Child Development, the Ford Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and NRC internal funds. Beyond the expertise and hard work of the committee, we were fortu- nate to have many leaders in the field enthusiastically participate in this project. These individuals shared their knowledge and years of experience as researchers, evaluators, practitioners, policy makers, and funders. We are thankful for their time and their intellectual insights. In October 2001 the committee convened a one-day Workshop on Caring for Infants and Toddlers. Participants included leading social scien- tists, researchers, economists, business leaders, policy makers, and funders: Sanders Korenman, Baruch College; Ann Segal, David and Lucile Packard Foundation; Suzanne Bianchi, University of Maryland, College Park; Harriet Presser, University of Maryland, College Park; Jody Heymann, Harvard University; Ross Thompson, University of Nebraska; Gina Adams, The Urban Institute; Ann Collins, National Center for Children and Pov- erty; Toni Porter, Bank Street College of Education; Jane Waldfogel, Co- vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS lumbia University; Donna Klein, Marriott International, Inc.; Ellen Bravo, 9to5; and Joan Lombardi, The Children's Project. In addition to these formal presentations, a number of individuals were consulted in the development of this report, and we also wish to acknowl- edge their support and assistance. They include: Greg Duncan, Northwest- ern University; Jean Flor, University of Wisconsin; Dana Friedman, Bright Horizons Family Solutions; Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute; Michael Grapkowski, New York University; Virginia Knox, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation; Andrew London, Syracuse Univer- sity; Heather Lord, University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ann Meier, Univer- sity of Wisconsin, Madison; Lana Nenide, Wisconsin Center for Education Research; Connie Nickels, University of Wisconsin; Jacob Strand, Univer- sity of Wisconsin, Madison; and Thomas Weisner, University of California, Los Angeles. The committee worked with a number of consultants who helped pre- pare background material or data that was incorporated into this report: Jay Bainbridge, Columbia University School of Public Health; Dan Blanchette, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Wen-Jui Han, Co- lumbia University; JoAnn Hsueh, New York University; Angela Odoms- Young, University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign; and Margery Leveen Sher, Caliber Associates, Inc. and Fred & Sher. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with proce- dures approved by the Report Review Committee of the NRC. The pur- pose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Gina Adams, The Urban Institute, Washington, DC; Eliza- beth K. Briody, General Motors, Troy, Michigan; Laurie T. Charest, Hu- man Resources, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Janet Currie, Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles; Mark Greenberg, Center for Law and Social Policy, Washington, DC; Aletha C. Huston, Department of Human Ecology, University of Texas at Austin; R. Duncan Luce, School of Social Sciences, University of California, Irvine; and Barbara (Bobbi) Wolfe, School of Public Affairs, University of Wiscon- sin-Madison. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix release. The review of this report was overseen by Timothy M. Smeeding, Center for Policy Research, University of Syracuse and Lyle V. Jones, L.L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Appointed by the National Research Council, they were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The committee wishes to recognize the important contributions and support provided by several individuals connected to the NRC and the IOM. We thank the members of the Board on Children, Youth, and Fami- lies, under the leadership of Michael Cohen, and the Committee on Adoles- cent Health and Development, under the leadership of Robert Blum. We also thank Harvey Fineburg, IOM president; Susanne Stoiber, IOM execu- tive officer; Michael Feuer, executive director of the NRC's Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education; Jane Ross, director of the Center for Economic and Social Sciences; and Susan Cummins, director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, for their steadfast support of the project and their critical review of drafts of the report. Also, we appreciate the support of Michele Kipke, former director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families for helping develop this project. We appreciate Eugenia Grohman, associate director for reports of DBASSE, Christine McShane, editor, and Kirsten Sampson Snyder, reports officer, who patiently worked with us through several revisions and who provided superb editorial assistance. Vanee Vines of the National Acad- emies' Office of News and Public Information provided advice and assis- tance with report dissemination. Finally, it is important to acknowledge the contributions of the com- mittee staff who worked on this report. Amy Gawad, research associate, played an invaluable role in helping manage the committee process and collecting, summarizing, and organizing background materials. Elizabeth Townsend (from July 2002) and Meredith Madden (until June 2002), se- nior project assistants, did a superb job of managing the numerous and often complicated administrative and research responsibilities. Eugene Smolensky, Chair Jennifer A. Gootman, Study Director Committee on Family and Work Policies

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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 Setting the Stage 11 PART I: WORK, FAMILY, AND CHILD CARE TRENDS 21 2 Work and Family Trends 23 3 Trends in the Care of Children 42 PART II: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS 65 4 Maternal Employment and the Family Environment 67 5 Effects of Child Care 99 6 Parental Employment and Adolescent Development 178 7 Effects of Welfare Reform 199 PART III: SUPPORTS FOR WORKING FAMILIES 227 8 Public Policies to Support Working Families 229 9 Findings and Next Steps 260 REFERENCES 281 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 327 INDEX 335 xi

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