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Index A cognitive development, 179 community-based care, 17, 187, 188 Academic achievement costs of care, family expenditures, see also Educational attainment 189-190 adolescents, 80, 180-181, 188, 189, 190, defined, 178 192-195, 197-198, 220, 224, delinquency, 80, 82, 117, 118, 180 225, 226, 266 depression, 181, 184 after-school programs, 128, 129-130 developmental factors, 16, 17, 65, aspirations, 68, 76, 180 79-82, 98, 178-181, 197 child care homes, 122 employment of adolescents, 81, 180, early childhood education, 176 187, 190-198 family income, 68, 74 family functioning, 16, 17, 65, 79-82, maternal employment, 68, 88, 92, 127 98, 178, 180, 185, 187, 195-197 paternal involvement, 91 funding of programs for, 131, 188, 246, self-care, 127, 266 273 welfare reform, 215, 220, 224, 225, 226 gender factors, 191, 198, 225 Adolescents health status, 17, 180, 181, 184, 192, see also After-school programs 193, 217 academic achievement, 80, 180-181, 188, income, family, 195 189, 190, 192-195, 197-198, 220, maternal employment, 4, 79-82 224, 225, 226, 266 mothers, adolescent, 219-220, 222, 223 after-school programs, 7, 18, 128, 129- National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 130, 131, 132, 187, 189-190, (NLSY), 82, 83, 87, 122, 125, 247, 272-273 186, 190-191, 235, 237 alcohol/substance abuse, 180, 192 outcome assessments, 79-82, 188-189, behavioral development, 80, 180, 181, 192-198, 263-264 184-185, 187, 188-189 parental employment, 65, 178-198 child care by, 81, 183-184 parenting of, 79-82, 98, 179, 181-198, child care for, 1, 4, 7, 263-264 266 335

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336 INDEX peer influences, 129, 179, 183, 185, quality of child care, 56-63 (passim), 190, 192 110, 113-114 policy options, 7, 272-273 school-age children, child care, 47-50, pregnancy, 181 125-133, 134-135 quality of care, 187-188, 263-264 self-care, 126, 181, 182 racial/ethnic factors, 191 Aid to Families with Dependent Children research recommendations, 81-82, 277- (AFDC), 199-200, 203, 220, 221, 278 261 self-care, 48, 49-50, 88, 126-128, 135, see also Temporary Assistance for Needy 181-186, 266 Families sexual activity, 179-180, 181 child care development block grant, 248, social development, 17, 178-179, 180, 265 185, 189, 190, 192-193, 266 marital status, impacts on, 216 structured voluntary activities, 132-133, research methodology, 201-202, 216, 135, 187, 188 220, 221 substance abuse, 180, 192 single mothers, employment, 204, 206 welfare reform, 79-82, 219-220, 222, Alcohol abuse, 192 223-226 American Indians, 243, 245 AFDC, see Aid to Families with Dependent American Public Health Association, Children 114-115 African Americans, see Black persons APECP, see Assessment Profile for Early The After-School Corporation programs, Childhood Programs 130-131, 247 Armed forces, see Military personnel, After-school programs, 2, 7, 18, 81, children of 125-126, 128-132, 135, 180, Arnett Scale, 101 186-190, 246-247, 263 Asians, 243, 245 academic achievement and, 128, Assessment Profile for Early Childhood 129-130 Programs (APECP), 147 behavioral development, 129-130, 131, Attachment Q-Set, 141 187 Attitudes and motivation cost factors, 189-190, 247, 273 academic aspirations, 68, 76, 180 disabled persons, 128 caregiver satisfaction, 141, 145 faith-based, 7, 273 toward child care, 11 language development, 129 childrearing attitudes, 86-87, 92, 137 maternal parenting, 76, 77 employment aspirations, 69, 76, 193 process quality measures, 106, 130 father's parenting role, 90 research recommendations, 11, 189-190 gender role attitudes, 68 rural areas, 128, 246 maternal employment impacts, 68, 69, structured voluntary activities, 132-133, 76, 87, 221 135, 187, 188 toward self-care, 126, 127 21st Century Community Learning welfare reform, 221 Centers (CCLC), 7, 128-129, toward work, 69, 221 131, 246, 273 Age factors see also Adolescents; Developmental B factors; Early childhood care/ education; Infants; Preschool Before-school programs, 106, 125 children; School-aged children Behavioral development, 115, 120-121, 163, 225 childbearing, 24 leave from work, policies, 230, 234 see also Social development maternal employment, 26-27, 29-31 adolescent, 80, 180, 181, 184-185, 187, 188-189

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INDEX 337 caregiver characteristics, 106, 111, 112, after-school programs, 130 113, 118 attitudes of, 141, 145 classroom, 76 committee study at hand, methodology, delinquency, 80, 82, 117, 118, 180 2 family income, 74-75, 79, 86 developmental impacts, 108-110, father's role, 89-90 114-115 Head Start, 117 education and training, 10, 57-59, 101, maternal depression, 92 109, 110, 114, 133, 136-145, mother/infant interaction, 86, 87 150-151, 256 parental absence, 16, 38, 127 group size (children), 56, 57, 58, 110, parental intervention programs, 5, 79, 114, 121, 136-150 (passim), 95 162-163, 166-167, 170-171 self-care, 126-127, 183, 184-185 mentors, 187, 188 sexual activity, 179-180, 181 neighbors and friends, 42 substance abuse, 180, 192 process measures, 10, 101, 109-115 time spent in care, 124 qualifications, 6-7, 59, 101, 114-115, Big Brothers Big Sisters, 187, 188 136-145, 150-151, 256 Black persons quality of, general, 4, 10, 12, 17, adolescent employment, 191 108-110, 114-115, 130, 137-151 after-school programs, 129 ratio of caregivers to children, 10, 56, child care arrangements, 43, 48 57, 58, 109, 115, 117, 121, 130, child care expenditures, 51, 53 136-150 (passim), 162-171, 256 Head Start, 243 supply of, 54-56 infant development, 83 structural caregiver characteristics, maternal psychological well-being, 92 general, 108-110, 114-115, 130, parental discipline, 86-87 133 self-care, 126 table of research findings, 136-149 single mothers, 86-87, 206, 215 wages, 110, 144-145, 164 Title I preschool program, 245 Carolina Abecedarian Project, 117-118 Block grants, CCDF, see Child Care Development Fund child care development, 247-252, 265, CC-HOME Scale, 107, 121, 150-151 272 CCLC, see 21st Century Community Social Services Block Grant, 253 Learning Centers vouchers, 7, 9, 248-249, 265, 268, Census data 271-272 see also Current Population Survey welfare reform, 200, 250-254, 265, 272 Study of Early Child Care vs, 100 Census of Services, 55 Center-based intervention programs, C 116-122 see also Early Head Start; Head Start CACFP, see Child and Adult Care Food process quality measures, 105-149 Program (passim) Canada, welfare reform, 214-215 Center for the Child Care Workforce, 55-56 Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS), 107, 137 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Caregivers, nonparental, 42-49 (passim), 181 56-60 (passim), 101, 102, 180, CF, see Children's Foundation 260 Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, 131 see also Grandparents; Relatives, other Chicago Parent-Child Centers, 117 than parents; Teachers Child and Adult Care Food Program adolescent caregiver characteristics, 106, (CACFP), 254 111, 112, 113, 118 adolescents, care by, 81, 183-184

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338 INDEX Child care, general, 1-2, 3-4, 6-7, 12-13, maternal employment, use of, 43-44, 77 17-18, 42-64, 99-177 military personnel, children of, 256 see also Caregivers, nonparental; Child process quality measures, 105-135 care centers; Child care homes; (passim) Community-based child care; quality assessment, general, 56-63 Early childhood care/education; (passim), 99-102, 103-104, 106 Family day care centers; racial/ethnic factors, 43-45, 48, 125 Home-based care; Leave policies; time spent in, 103-104 Quality of care; Relatives, other welfare reforms, 223, 226 than parents; Self-care Child Care Development Block Grant, 248 adolescents, 1, 4, 7, 263-264 Child Care Development Fund (CCDF), arrangements, 47-50 (passim) 247-252 block grants for development, 247-252, Child care homes, 42, 107, 121-122 264-265, 272 see also Family day care centers cognitive development, 1-2, 99, 102 academic achievement and, 122 committee policy options, 267-273 quality of care, 107, 109-110, 121-122, developmental outcomes, 99-177 138-139, 144-145, 175-176 ecological systems theory, 102-103, welfare reforms, 223 183-184 Child Care Staffing Study, see National expenditures on child care by families, Child Care Staffing Study 18, 42, 46, 50-54, 56, 63, Child Outcomes Study, 74, 87 189-190 Children's Foundation (CF), 55 family leave from work, 235, 236, CIS, see Caregiver Interaction Scale 257-258, 275-276 Cities, see Urban areas historical perspectives, 1-2, 11, 23-24, Citizenship status, 44, 45, 48 40, 42-64 (passim), 99, 103 Cognitive development, 16 immigrants, 44, 45, 48, 129 see also Academic achievement; income and, 2, 5, 47, 48-50, 53, 63, Language development 100, 107 adolescents, 179 international policy comparisons, caregiver characteristics, 108-109, 258-259 114-115 military personnel, children of, 256 child care, general, 1-2, 99, 102 parental time spent, 23-24, 31, 32-36 early child care, 99, 100-101, 105, racial/ethnic factors, 43-45, 48 108-122 (passim) regional factors, 44, 46, 48 Early Head Start, 120 supply, 54-56 family functioning and management, 76, tax credits, 238-239, 240 78 vouchers, 7, 9, 248-249, 265, 268, maternal employment, 1-2, 73, 76, 78, 271-272 83, 87, 125, 217 Child care centers, 42, 44, 45-46, 48-49, 77 process quality measures, 106, 108-109, see also Family day care centers 111-112, 113, 125 after-school programs, 128 self-care, 127 caregiver/children ratios, 10, 56, 57, 58, tabulated research results, 150-151 109, 115, 117, 121, 130, welfare reform, 216, 217, 219, 222, 279 136-150 (passim), 162-171, 256 Community-based child care, 6-7, 18 center-based intervention programs, adolescents, general, 17, 187, 188 116-122, 176-177 after-school programs, 7, 18, 128, 187 developmental outcomes, 99, 102 self-care, 126, 127 ecological systems theory, 102, 183-184 Community Programs to Promote Youth employment, 54-56, 57-59 Development, 17 group size, 56, 57, 58, 110, 114, 121, Consumer Expenditure Survey, 191 136-150 (passim) Cortisol, 124

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INDEX 339 Cost and cost-benefit factors Department of Agriculture, 254 adolescents, expenditures on care, 51 Department of Defense, 256 child care policy options, 7, 8-9, 63-64, Department of Education 267-277 21st Century Community Learning committee study methodology, 6 Centers (CCLC), 7, 128-129, econometrics, 72, 110, 195, 209, 210, 131, 246, 273 216-217 Department of Health and Human Services family expenditures on child care, 18, Centers for Disease Control and 42, 46, 50-54, 56, 63, 189-190 Prevention, 181 family leave, employer/public costs, child care block grants, 249, 251 274-275 Study of Early Child Care, 61, 83, 84, health care, 15 90, 100, 106-108, 112, 113, welfare reform, family economics, 74, 123-125 75, 272 U.S. Child Care Workforce and Cost, Quality, and Outcome Study (CQO), Caregiving Population, 55-56 59-61, 100-101, 112-113, 143 Department of Labor, 274 CPS, see Current Population Survey Dependent Care Assistance Program CQO, see Cost, Quality, and Outcome (DCAP), 238 Study Depression Cultural factors adolescents, 181, 184 see also Attitudes and motivation; children, 128, 133 International perspectives; Race/ maternal, 78-79, 84, 88, 91-93, ethnicity 102-103, 113, 133, 214, child care, low-income families, 77 219-220, 224 committee study methodology, 2, 13, 14 paternal, 102-103 faith-based after-school programs, 7, Developmental factors, 16, 99-177, 260, 273 263-264 welfare-to-work, 69, 221, 224, 225 see also Age factors; Attitudes and Current Population Survey (CPS) motivation; Behavioral adolescent employment, 191, 192 development; Cognitive adolescent mothers, child abuse, 222 development; Educational nonstandard work schedules, 36, 37, 39 attainment; Social development adolescents, 16, 17, 65, 79-82, 98, 178-198, 264, 266 D after-school programs, 128-132 caregiver characteristics and outcomes, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 2 108-110, 114-115 DCAP, see Dependent Care Assistance child care centers, 99, 102 Program committee methodology, 2, 13 Definitional issues discipline, 76 adolescence, 178 early child care, 99-135 (passim), 263 low-income, 97 ecological systems theory, 102, 183-184 process quality, 105-106 family functioning, 65, 67, 68-70, research terms, 72 75-91, 100, 101, 108 self-care, 126 income, family, 74-75, 131, 151-155, shift work schedules, 37 159, 163, 165, 217, 279-280 Delinquency, 80, 82, 117, 118, 180 infants, 82-84, 95-96, 113-114, Demographic factors, see Educational 117-118, 120-124, 150-151 attainment; Income; Marital maternal employment, 1-2, 67-98, 125, status; Race/ethnicity; Regional 217, 231, 265 factors; Rural areas; quality of care, 2, 4, 56, 61-62, 64, 65, Socioeconomic status; State-level 67, 99-102, 104, 105 factors; Urban areas

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340 INDEX self-care, 126-127, 183, 184-185 cognitive development, 99, 100-101, socioeconomic status, general, 74, 131, 105, 108-122 (passim) 151-155, 159, 163, 165, 277 Cost, Quality, and Outcome Study Study of Early Child Care, 61, 83, 84, (CQO), 59-61, 100-101, 90, 100, 106-108, 112, 113, 112-113, 143 123-125 developmental impacts, 99-135 (passim), tabular results, 136-171 263 welfare reform, 216-226 Early Head Start, 4, 6, 120, 121, 244, Diet, see Nutrition 268-269, 270 Disabled persons Family and Relative Care Study, 101 adolescent caregivers, 183-184 family functioning, 101-103, 113 after-school programs, 128 funding, 4, 6-7, 8-9, 247-252, 268-271 child care supply, 56 Head Start, 4, 6, 7, 8, 16, 55, 117, 118, Education of the Handicapped Act, 245 119, 120, 223, 242-244, Head Start, 243-244 268-269, 270 Individuals with Disabilities Act, 245 multiplicity of arrangements, 104 infants, public educational policies, 245 National Child Care Staffing Study, 59, leave from work, temporary disabilities, 60, 101, 108, 110 2, 231, 262, 273-275 National Day Care Study, 101 Pregnancy Disability Act, 231 parental emotional impact, 102-103 special education, 118, 224 parent-focused programs, 116, 117-118, welfare reform, 25, 118, 224 119-121 Diseases, disorders, and illness placement considerations, 104-105 see also Disabled persons; Health quality assessment, 2, 4, 6-7, 16-17, 57, insurance; Health status 58, 100-101, 105-125, 263, 264, children, leave policies, 15, 230 267-272 medical leave, 230, 231 self-care, 127 psychological, see Depression social development, 99, 105, 106, 109, public education policy, 245 111, 112-113, 114, 120, 121, welfare reform, 217, 218, 225 122 Divorced persons, 23, 28, 29 standards, 6-7, 101, 256 child care arrangements, 44, 48 Study of Early Child Care, 61, 83, 84, child care expenditures, 51 90, 100, 106-108, 112, 113, nonstandard work schedules, 39 123-125 Dropouts, 180-181, 188, 189, 192-193, 224 tabular research results, 136-161 Drug abuse, see Substance abuse Three-State Study, 101 time spent in, by age, 25, 26 Early Childhood Environmental Rating E Scale (ECERS), 59, 60, 101, 106, 109, 112, 119, 137-147, Early Child Care Research Network, 61, 150-158, 162-167, 271, 272 106-107, 109, 114, 122, 256 Early Childhood Observation Instrument Early childhood care/education, 2, 4, 6-9, (ECOI), 141 11, 16-17, 25, 26, 56-60, 101, Early Head Start, 4, 6, 120, 121, 244, 116-119 268-269, 270 see also Caregivers, nonparental; Family cost factors, 7, 8 day care centers; Preschool Earned income tax credit (EITC), 12, 18, children; Teachers 73, 199, 202, 203, 206, 207-208, academic achievement later, 176 212, 220, 239-240 childhood-to-adulthood studies, ECERS, see Early Childhood Environment 118-119, 176 Rating Scale

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INDEX 341 ECOI, see Early Childhood Observation aspirations of children, 69, 76, 193 Instrument attitudes toward, general, 69, 221 Ecological systems theory, 102-103, 183-184 caregiver satisfaction, 141, 145 Econometrics, 72, 110, 195, 209, 210, child care centers, 54-56, 57-59 216-217 child care tax assistance, 238 Economic factors committee findings, 261-266 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; educational attainment, adolescent, 191 Funding; Income; Poverty; educational attainment, maternal, 1, 29, Socioeconomic status; Tax 78, 95, 119, 120 policies; Welfare; Welfare reform hours of work, 15, 24, 29-31, 36-40, 44, committee study methodology, 2 48, 49, 70, 83, 125 husband's earnings, wife's employment, job training, adolescents, 187, 188, 191, 29 194 maternal employment, family economics, shift work, 36, 37, 45, 48, 49, 52, 182 73-78 single mothers, 1, 3, 4, 23, 26-28, 31, welfare-to-work, 209 40, 204-206, 210-212 economic cycles, 204, 208, 210, 212 temporary employment, 15 incentives, 70, 77, 78, 97, 98, 203, unemployment insurance as leave pay 214-215 substitute, 273, 274 wives as primary earners, 31-32, 40-41 welfare-to-work reforms, see Welfare Education and training, professional reform child care providers/teachers, 10, 57-59, work schedules, 15, 24, 36-40, 41, 45, 101, 109, 110, 114, 133, 56 136-145, 150-151, 162-164 Europe, 257-259 job training, adolescents, 187, 188, 191, family leave from work, 235, 236, 275 194 Extended Services School Initiative, 129-130 teachers, 10, 57-59, 101, 114, 162-163 Education of the Handicapped Act, 245 Educational attainment F see also Academic achievement Faith-based organizations, after-school adolescents, 80, 180-181, 188, 189, 190 aspirations, 68, 76 programs, 7, 273 dropouts, 180-181, 188, 189, 192-193, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 2, 3, 9, 12, 17, 231, 232-235, 237, 224 hours of work, 29 261, 262, 276-277 leave from work, eligibility, 233, 234, Family and Relative Care Study, 101 Family day care centers 235, 237 maternal, 113 caregiver/children ratio, 56, 57, 58, parental, general, 116, 119-121, 137, 136-149 (passim) ecological systems theory, 102 222 welfare reform, 76, 119, 203 group sizes, 56, 57, 58, 114, 136-149 EITC, see Earned income tax credit (passim) Head Start, 119 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 245 licensing requirements, 54-55, 58, 101 Employment, general, 260, 280 process quality, 101, 106, 107, 136-149 (passim) see also Household work; Income; International perspectives; Leave quality assessment, 56-63 (passim), 103, policies; Maternal employment; 121 supply, 54-56 Part-time employment; Wages and salaries; Welfare reform use, demographics, 44, 45 adolescents, 81, 180, 187, 190-198 Family Day Care Rating Scale (FDCRS), 101, 106, 137, 150

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342 INDEX Family functioning and management, 18, Family Support Act, 199, 220 65, 67, 68-98, 260 Fathers see also Depression; Home-based care; attitudes toward parenting, 90 Household work; Marital status behavioral development, 89-90 adolescents, 16, 17, 65, 79-82, 98, 178, child care, 70, 89-91 180, 185, 187, 195-197 educational, 90 childrearing attitudes, 86-87, 92, 137 quality assessment, 62, 90, 120, cognitive stimulation, 76, 78 172-173 control and discipline, 76, 78, 81, time spent, 32, 34-36, 40, 41, 46 86-87, 92 depression, 102-103 developmental outcomes, 65, 67, 68-70, employment, 29, 41, 46, 89 75-91, 100, 101, 108 household work, time spent, 33, 40 early child care, 101-103, 113 single, 89 ecological systems theory, 102-103, wives as primary earners, 31-32, 40-41 183-184 FDCRS, see Family Day Care Rating Scale emotional support, 76, 77-78, 102-103 Federal government, 6 gatekeeping, 76, 77 see also Legislation; Policy issues; State maternal employment, 65, 67, 68-98 government; specific departments adaptation to, 69, 93-94 and agencies maternal psychological well-being, 70, devolution of responsibilities to states, 6, 71, 73, 75, 86, 87, 88, 91-93, 95, 11-12, 200, 202-203 96, 102-103, 113, 133, 214, 218, Fertility, 24 219-220, 224 family size, 73, 219, 222, 250 modeling, 76 welfare reform, 200, 215-216, 219, 222 National Day Care Study, 101 FMLA, see Family and Medical Leave Act nonstandard work schedules, 36-40, 41, Food and nutrition, see Nutrition 70, 88-89, 97-98 Food stamps, 45, 49, 75, 220 routines and traditions, 76 Ford Foundation, 2 self-care, 126, 127, 181-185 Foreign countries, see Immigrants; Study of Early Child Care, 100 International perspectives welfare reforms, 69, 70, 71, 74-82 Foundation for Child Development, 2 (passim), 92-93, 95, 96-98, From Neurons to Neighborhoods, 17 217-219, 220, 221-222 Funding, 6, 259, 264 child abuse/domestic violence, see also Block grants; Cost and 222-223 cost-benefit factors; Welfare wives as primary earners, 31-32, 40-41 adolescent programs, 131, 188, 246, Family leave, see Leave policies 273 Family members, other than parents, see after-school programs, 131, 246-247, Relatives, other than parents 273 Family size, 73, 219, 250 Child Care Development Fund, 247-252, Family structure 264 see also Fathers; Grandparents; Marital committee study methodology, 2, 6 status; Maternal employment; early childhood education, 4, 6-7, 8-9, Relatives, other than parents; 247-252, 268-271 Single mothers Military Child Care Act, 256 after-school programs, 129-130 public education, 241 child care expenditures, 51-52 state prekindergarten programs, 119, outcome measures, 108, 162-171, 269, 270-271 174-175 Summer Food Service Program, 254 self-care, 126, 127 21st Century Community Learning welfare reform, 217, 218-219, 221-222 Centers (CCLC), 131, 246, 273

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INDEX 343 U.S. Child Care Workforce and Medicaid, 15, 75, 208 Caregiving Population, 55-56 Health status vouchers, 7, 9, 248-249, 265, 268, see also Disabled persons; Diseases, 271-272 disorders, and illness; Fertility; Nutrition adolescents, 17, 180, 181, 184, 192, G 193, 217 child safety, 15-16, 38, 73, 248-249, Gender factors 252, 266 see also Fathers; Fertility; Marital status; costs of health care, 15 Maternal employment; Single nonstandard work schedules, 37-38, 40 mothers psychological, see Depression adolescent academic achievement, 225 Title I preschool program, 245 adolescent employment, 191, 198 welfare reform, 224-225 after-school programs, 76, 130 Hispanics attitudes toward gender roles, 68 adolescent employment, 191 corporate work place policies, access to, after-school programs, 129 230 child care arrangements, 43, 44, 48 household work time, 23-24, 32, 33, 38, child care expenditures, 51, 53 39, 40 dropouts, 180-181 leave from work, policies, 230, 234 Head Start, 243 maternal psychological well-being, 70, 71, infant development, 83 73, 75, 86, 87, 88, 91-93, 95, 96 self-care, 126, 182 maternity leave, 9, 83-84, 231-233, single mothers, 206 235-237, 274, 276 Title I preschool program, 245 parental child care, 32-36 Historical perspectives, 1-2, 3, 16, 23 parenting, 76-93 after-school programs, 128 paternity leave, 231, 232, 233, 236 child care, general, 1-2, 11, 23-24, 40, General Accounting Office, 128-129 42-64 (passim), 99, 103 Government, see Federal government; childbearing age, 24 Legislation; Policy issues; family expenditures, 50 Regulations; State government; leave from work, 229-240 Tax policies; Welfare; Welfare maternal employment, 1, 3, 11, 14, 23, reform 24-32, 34-35, 40, 99, 204-206 Grandparents, 44, 47, 48-49, 62, 121, 122, nonstandard work schedules, 36 144-145, 173-174 parental, 32-36 ecological systems theory, 102 public policy, 5, 6, 11-12, 16-17, 266 education, 241-247 single parents, 1, 3, 4, 14, 23, 26-29, 31, H 40-41, 204-206 Handicapped persons, see Disabled persons welfare reform, 2, 12, 199-201, 202, Head Start, 4, 6, 16, 117, 118, 119, 120, 204-207, 209-226 (passim) 242-244, 268-269, 270 Home-based care, 23, 31, 42, 62, 77 see also Early Head Start see also Child care homes; Family day cost factors, 7, 8 care centers; Family functioning supply, 55 and management; Grandparents; welfare reforms, 223 Relatives, other than parents; Health insurance, 230 Self-care disability, wage coverage, 2, 231, 262, grandparents, 44, 47, 48-49, 62, 102, 273-275 121, 122, 144-145, 173-174 low-wage/part-time employment, 15 parental time spent, 23-24, 31, 32-36

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344 INDEX process quality, 142-145, 148-149 structured voluntary activities, 132-133 Hours of work, 15, 24, 29-31, 36-40, 44, Study of Early Child Care, 100 48, 49, 70, 83, 125 welfare reform impacts, 203, 206-208, see also Part-time work; Time factors 211, 212-215, 220, 221 adolescent employment, 81, 192-193, wives as primary earners, 31-32, 40-41 197-198 Individuals with Disabilities Act, 245 fathers, 90 Infant Health and Development Program, infant development, 83 120 welfare beneficiaries, work Infant Toddler Environmental Rating Scale requirements, 200, 203, 210, (ITERS), 59, 60, 61, 101, 106, 214-215 137-139, 143-147, 150-151, 154- welfare leavers, 206-207, 211 157, 162-165 Household work Infants, 105 adolescents, 81, 193 see also Early Head Start maternal time spent, 23-24, 32, 33, 38, birth weight, 120 39 caregiver characteristics, 113-114, paternal time spent, 33, 40 150-151 developmental outcomes, 82-84, 95-96, 113-114, 117-118, 120-124, 150- I 151 disabled, public educational policies, 245 Illness, see Diseases, disorders, and illness father's parenting role, 90 Immigrants grandparental care, 122 see also Hispanics maternal employment, 24-25, 82-84, adolescent employment, 192, 193 122, 231, 261 after-school programs, 129 parental leave, 6, 7, 9, 13, 18, 229-237, child care arrangements, 44, 45, 48 261-262, 265-266, 279 welfare reforms, 200 quality of care, 57-61 (passim), 113-114, Income, family, 5 117-118, 120-121, 123-124 see also Poverty; Socioeconomic status; single mothers, 205 Wages and salaries; Welfare; welfare reforms, 83, 205 Welfare reform In-home care, see Home-based care academic achievement, 68, 74 Inner-city environments, see Urban areas adolescents, 195 Insurance, see Health insurance behavioral development, 74-75, 79, 86 International perspectives child care expenditures, 52, 53, 63 Canadian welfare reform, 214-215 child care quality, 100, 107 Europe, 235, 236, 257-259, 275-276 developmental outcomes, 74-75, 131, family leave from work, 235, 236, 151-155, 159, 163, 165, 217, 257-258, 275-276 279-280 immigrants, child care arrangement, 44, earned income tax credit (EITC), 12, 18, 45, 48 73, 199, 202, 203, 206, 207-208, ITERS, see Infant Toddler Environmental 212, 220, 239-240 Rating Scale husband's earnings, wife's employment, 29 leave from work, 7, 17, 230, 234, 273- J 276 maternal employment, 1, 4, 5, 29, Job training 48-50, 52, 53, 265 adolescents, 187, 188, 191, 194 school-age children, child care, 47, welfare reform, 74, 78, 95, 116, 119- 48-50, 52 121, 220, 248 self-care, 126, 127, 182 JOBS programs, 74, 78, 95, 248

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INDEX 345 L (CQO), 59-61, 100-101, 112-113, 143 Language development, 106 National Education Longitudinal Survey after-school programs, second-language (NELS), 187(n.3) speakers, 129 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Carolina Abecedarian Project, 117 (NLSY), 82, 83, 87, 122, 125, center-based care, 120, 122 186, 190-191, 235, 237 Early Head Start, 120 quality of care, general, 61, 64 process quality, 111-115 (passim), self-care, 183 150-151, 163 Study of Early Child Care, 61, 83, 84, Latchkey care, see Self-care 90, 100, 106-108, 112, 113, Leave policies 123-125 age factors, 230, 234 Low-income families, see Poverty; Welfare; disabilities, 2, 231, 262, 273-275 Welfare reform Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 2, 3, 9, 12, 17, 231, 232-235, 237, 261, 262, 276-277 M income level and, 7, 17, 230, 234, 273-276 Marital status medical leave, 230, 231, 237 see also Single mothers parental leave, 6, 7, 9, 13, 18, 229-237, child care expenditures, 51, 53 261-262, 265-266, 279 child care use, 44, 47, 48 part-time employment, 231, 232, 233 corporate work place policies, access to, time factors, 2, 9, 83-84, 230, 235-237, 230 276 divorced persons, 23, 28, 29, 39, 44, 48, wages and salaries, 230, 232, 233, 51 235-237, 265-266 leave from work, policies, 234 Legislation never married mothers, 28, 29, 44, 48, see also Policy issues; Regulations 51, 204, 234 after-school programs, 247 nonstandard work schedules, marital Education of the Handicapped Act, 245 quality, 38, 39, 41 Elementary and Secondary Education parental child care, 32-36 Act, 245 welfare reform, 200, 205, 212, 215-216, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), 218-219 2, 3, 9, 12, 17, 231, 232-235, widowed persons, 28, 29, 235 237, 261, 262, 276-277 Maternal employment, 1, 2, 5, 18, 99 Family Support Act, 199, 220 academic achievement of children, 68, Individuals with Disabilities Act, 245 88, 92, 127 Military Child Care Act, 256 adolescents, 4, 79-82 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts, age factors, 26-27, 29-31 240 attitudes and motivation, 68, 69, 76, 87, Personal Responsibility and Work 221 Opportunities Act (PRWOA, child care, time spent, 32, 34-35 1996 Act), 2, 12, 64, 199, 200, child care arrangements, 43-45, 48 203, 216-217 child care center use, 43-44, 77 Pregnancy Disability Act, 231 child care expenditures, 50-54, 63 wages, 14 child development, 65, 67, 68, 74, 99 Younger Americans Act, 188 children's age, 1, 24-27, 29-30, 31, Longitudinal studies 42-53 (passim), 67, 68, 88, 204, child care, general, 103, 104 205, 212 childhood-to-adulthood studies, 118-119 cognitive development, 1-2, 73, 76, 78, Cost, Quality, and Outcome Study 83, 87, 125, 217

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346 INDEX committee findings, 261 N developmental impacts, 1-2, 67-98, 125, 217, 231, 265 NAEYC, see National Association for the earned income tax credit, 12, 18, 73, Education of Young Children 199 National Association for the Education of economic factors, family, 73-78 Young Children (NAEYC), 271 child outcomes, 73-78 National Child Care Staffing Study, 59, 60, educational attainment, 1, 29, 78, 95, 101, 108, 110 119, 120 National Child Care Survey (NCCS), 54-55, expenditures on child care, 18, 42, 46, 104, 132 50-54, 56, 63 National Day Care Study, 101 family functioning, general, 65, 67, National Education Longitudinal Survey 68-98 (NELS), 187(n.3) historical perspectives, 1, 3, 11, 14, 23, National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work 24-32, 34-35, 40, 99, 204-206 Strategies, 74, 87, 222-223 hours of work, 29-31, 70, 83, 88 National Head Start Impact Study, 6 household work, 32, 33, 38, 39 National Household Education Survey, 104 income, family, 1, 4, 5, 29, 48-50, 52, National Institute of Child Health and 53, 265 Human Development (NICHD) infants, 24-25, 82-84, 122, 231, 261 Early Child Care Research Network, 61, labor force participation, 1, 3, 11, 23, 106-107, 109, 114, 122, 256 25, 28, 42, 204, 205, 211-212, Observational Record of the Caregiving 216, 261 Environment, 61, 106-107, part-time, 40-41, 96 108-109, 112, 113-114, 145, poverty, general, 84-86, 199 150-151 preschool children, 42-46, 67, 205, 231 Study of Early Child Care, 61, 83, 84, psychological well-being of mother, 70, 90, 100, 106-108, 112, 113, 71, 73, 75, 86, 87, 88, 91-93, 95, 123-125 96 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth race/ethnicity, 1, 43-45, 48, 51, 83 (NLSY), 82, 83, 87, 122, 125, school-aged children, child care, 47-50 186, 190-191, 235, 237 social development, 1-2, 68, 73, 231, National Survey of America's Families 265 (NSAF), 187 welfare reforms, 14, 38, 64, 65, 69, 199, Native Americans, see American Indians 200, 203 NCCS, see National Child Care Survey welfare-to-work reimbursements/ NELS, see National Education Longitudinal incentives, 77, 78, 97, 98, 203, Survey 214 NICHD, see National Institute of Child Medicaid, 15, 75, 208 Health and Human Development Men, see Fathers; Gender factors NLSY, see National Longitudinal Survey of Mentors, 187, 188 Youth MFIP, see Minnesota Family Investment NSAF, see National Survey of America's Program Families Military Child Care Act, 256 Nutrition Military personnel, children of, 256 Child and Adult Care Food Program, Minnesota Family Investment Program 254 (MFIP), 214, 218, 221, 222 food stamps, 45, 49, 75, 220 Minority groups, see Race/ethnicity; specific Head Start, 254 groups Summer Food Service Program, 254-255 Title I preschool program, 245

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INDEX 347 O care by peers, 126, 183 social skills, 92, 102, 111, 112, 122, Observational Record of the Caregiving 124, 129, 190 Environment (ORCE), 61, time spent with, 128 106-107, 108-109, 112, 113-114, Personal Responsibility and Work 145, 150-151 Opportunities Act (PRWOA), 2, Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts, 240 12, 199, 200, 203, 216-217 ORCE, see Observational Record of the see also Temporary Assistance for Needy Caregiving Environment Families Outcome assessments, 56, 64, 65, 265 Child Care Development Fund (CCDF), see also Developmental factors 247-252 adolescents, 79-82, 188-189, 192-198, Policy issues, general, 3, 5-12, 63, 227-259, 263-264 272-273 early child care, 99, 102, 263-264 see also Federal government; Head Start, 244 International perspectives; process quality, 111-114 Legislation; Regulations; welfare reform, 201-226 Standards; State government; Tax The Overworked American, 31 policies; Welfare reform access to corporate work place policies, table, 230 P committee methodology, 2, 3, 12-13 Parental employment, 65, 178-198 committee recommendations, 7, 8-9, Parental leave, 6, 7, 9, 13, 18, 229-237, 266-277 costs, 7, 8-9, 63-64, 267-277 261-262, 265-266, 279 to arrange child care, 211 Poverty, 10, 14-16 costs to employer/public, 274-275 see also Welfare; Welfare reform adolescent employment, 191 maternity leave, 9, 83-84, 95-96, 231-233, 274, 275-276 after-school programs, 129, 131, 190, parental leave accounts, 275 263 child care expenditures, 52, 53, 63 paternity leave, 231, 232, 233, 236 public policy, general, 6, 13, 18, 229, child development, 68, 70, 83, 84-85, 273-277 217 committee study methodology, 2, 14 Parent-focused programs, 116, 117-118, 119-121 early child care/education, 2, 16-17, Parenting behavior, see Family functioning 102, 104, 107, 263 earned income tax credit (EITC), 12, 18, and management Part-time employment, 14-15 73, 199, 202, 203, 206, 207-208, child care arrangements, 44, 45-46, 48, 212, 220, 239-240 family adaptation, 69 49 child care expenditures, 52, 53-54 infant development, 83 health insurance, 15 international policy comparisons, 257-259 leave policies, 231, 232, 233 maternal, 40-41, 94, 96 kindergarten/prekindergarten, 241-242, temporary employment, 15 269, 270-271 maternal employment, 84-86, 199 welfare beneficiaries or leavers, 206-207, 214 nonstandard work schedules, 38 PCS, see Profile of Child Care Settings parental leave, 7, 17, 230, 234, 273-276 physical labor, 15 Peer influences adolescents, 129, 179, 183, 185, 190, private sector employee policies, 3 192 quality of care, 2, 4, 101, 102, 104, 107, 129, 131, 172-177 after-school programs, 129

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348 INDEX self-care, 127, 182 family day care centers, 101, 106, 107, single mothers, 14, 199, 206, 207 136-149 (passim) unskilled work, 14-15, 38 home-based care, 142-145, 148-149 Pregnancy Infant Toddler Environmental Rating adolescents, 181 Scale (ITERS), 59, 60, 61, 101, employment during, 24-25, 40 106 Head Start, 244 language development, 111-115 maternity leave, 83-84 (passim), 150-151, 163 mothers, 219-220, 222 measures, 70-71, 106-115, 136-177 Pregnancy Disability Act, 231 outcome assessments and, 111-114 sexual activity, 179-180, 181 School-Aged Environment Rating Scale, Pregnancy Disability Act, 231 106 Preschool children socioeconomic status, 176-177 see also Child care centers; Early statistical analyses, 136-149 childhood care/education; Family structural caregiver characteristics, day care centers; Infants general, 108-110, 114-115, 130, adolescents, child care provided by, 81 133 arrangements for care, 42-47, 54-56, 57, table of research findings, 136-149 58 time factors, 25, 26, 32-36, 99, 103, impacts, 105, 110, 113-114 120-121, 123-125 corporate work place policies, access to, Professional education, see Education and 230 training, professional Cost, Quality, and Outcome Study Profile of Child Care Settings (PCS), 54, 57, (CQO), 59-61, 100-101 277 disabled children, public education PRWOA, see Personal Responsibility and policy, 245 Work Opportunities Act expenditures for care, 50, 51, 56 Psychometrics, 105, 107, 111, 133 international policy comparisons, defined, 72 258-259 maternal employment, 42-46, 67, 205, 231 Q National Child Care Staffing Study, 59, 60, 101, 108, 110 Quality of care, 2, 4, 5, 6-7, 56-63, 100-177, 263 providers of care, 54-56, 57-63, 101 public policy, 241-245 see also Outcome assessments; Process quality of care, 57-63, 101, 108-125 quality; Regulations; Standards adolescents, 187-188, 263-264 supply of care, general, 54-56 welfare reform, 219, 223, 245 after-school programs, 7, 130-132, Private sector, 3 272-273 age factors, 56-63 (passim), 110, see also Leave policies Process quality, 56, 57, 105-115, 256 113-114 after-school programs, 106, 130 caregivers, nonparental client group size (children), 56, 57, before-school programs, 106 caregivers, nonparental, 10, 101, 58, 110, 114, 121, 136-150 109-115 (passim), 162-163, 166-167, 170-171 child-case centers, 105-135 (passim) cognitive development, 106, 108-109, general, 4, 10, 12, 17, 108-110, 111-112, 113, 125 114-115, 130, 137-151 ratio of caregivers to children, 10, 56, defined, 105-106 developmental factors, general, 70-71, 57, 58, 109, 115, 117, 121, 130, 106-115, 136-177 136-150 (passim), 162-171, 256

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INDEX 349 child care centers, 56-63 (passim), dropouts, 180-181 99-102, 103-104, 106 Head Start, 243 child care homes, 107, 109-110, immigrants, 44, 45, 48 121-122, 138-139, 144-145, leave from work, policies, 234 175-176 maternal employment, 1, 43-45, 48, 51, Cost, Quality, and Outcome Study 83 (CQO), 59-61, 100-101 National Day Care Study, 101 developmental outcomes, 2, 4, 56, self-care, 126, 182 61-62, 64, 65, 67, 99-102, 104, structured voluntary activities, 132 105 Study of Early Child Care, 100, 113 early child care, 2, 4, 6-7, 16-17, 57, 58, Title I preschool program, 245 100-101, 105-125, 263, 264, Regional factors 267-272 see also Rural areas; State-level factors; family day care centers, 56-63 (passim), Urban areas 103, 121 child care arrangements, 44, 46, 48 Head Start, 118, 119 Regulations home-based care, 142-145, 148-149 see also Standards preschool children, 57-63, 101, 108-125 child care, 255-256 public policy, general, 6, 16-17, day care center providers, licensing, 266-267, 272-273 54-55, 58, 101 research recommendations, 10, 277-278 military personnel, child care, 256 school-aged children, 125-133, 134-135 Relatives, other than parents, 1, 42-49 socioeconomic status, 1, 4, 6-7, 14, 74, (passim), 101, 102, 105, 180 131, 151-155, 159, 163, 165, see also Self-care 263 adolescent caregivers, 81, 183-184 state prekindergarten programs, 119, child care, general, 1, 42, 43, 121, 269, 270-271 144-145 Study of Early Child Care, 61, 83, 84, ecological systems theory, 102, 183-184 90, 100, 106-108, 112, 113, Religious influences, see Faith-based 123-125 organizations tabular research results, 150-171 Research recommendations, 10, 277-280 Three-State Study, 101 adolescent development, 81-82, 277-278 vouchers, 7, 9, 248-249, 265, 268, after-school programs, 11, 189-190 271-272 child care arrangements, 104, 277-278 welfare reforms, 223 time factors in child care, 124-125 Quantum Opportunities Program, 187-188 National Head Start Impact Study, 6 quality assessment, 64, 104, 124, 277-278 R relatives, nonparental, 122 terminology, 72 Race/ethnicity welfare reform, 201-202, 279-280 see also Black persons; Cultural factors; Rural areas Hispanics; Immigrants adolescents as caregivers, 183 adolescent employment, 191 after-school programs, 128, 246 after-school programs, 129 self-care, 126 American Indians, 243, 245 Asians, 243, 245 child care center arrangements, 43-45, S 48, 125 child care expenditures, 51, 53 Safety considerations, 15-16, 38, 73, child development, 125, 223 248-249, 252, 266

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350 INDEX School-aged children, 125-133, 134-135, Socioeconomic status, 277 220, 225 see also Educational attainment; see also Adolescents; After-school Employment; Income; Poverty; programs; Self-care; Structured Race/ethnicity; Socioeconomic voluntary activities status before-school programs, 106 after-school programs, 131, 189-190 child care, general, 47-50, 125-133, age factors, 151-155, 159, 163, 165, 134-135 172-177 family income and child care, 47, 48-50, child care arrangements, 44, 46, 48 52 developmental outcomes, 74, 131, maternal employment, 47-50 151-155, 159, 163, 165, 277 public policy, 241-247 maternal employment, developmental School-Aged Environment Rating Scale, 106 outcomes, 85, 86-89 Self-care, 48, 49-50, 88, 126-128, 135, quality of child care, 1, 4, 6-7, 14, 74, 181-186, 266 131, 151-155, 159, 163, 165, academic achievement, 127, 266 263 age factors, 126, 181, 182 Social development, 16 attitudes toward, 126, 127 see also Attitudes and motivation; behavioral development, 126-127, 183, Behavioral development; 184-185 Educational attainment; Language cognitive development, 127 development; Peer influences defined, 126 academic aspirations, 68 income, family, 126, 127, 182 adolescents, 17, 178-179, 180, 185, 189, social development, 127, 185, 266 190, 192-194, 266 Self Sufficiency Project (SSP), Canada, after-school programs, 129 214-215 caregiver characteristics, 109, 114-115 Sexual activity, 179-180, 181 child care, 1-2, 99, 102 see also Pregnancy delinquency, 80, 82, 117, 118, 180 SFPS, see Summer Food Service Program early child care, 99, 105, 106, 109, 111, Single mothers, 1, 3, 4, 14, 23, 26-29, 261 112-113, 114, 120, 121, 122 see also Aid to Families with Dependent Early Head Start, 120 Children; Divorced persons; gender role attitudes, 68 Widowed persons maternal employment, 1-2, 68, 73, 231, black persons, 86-87, 206, 215 235 child care expenditures, 51, 53 self-care, 127, 185, 266 child care use, 44, 47 structured voluntary activities, 132-133 cohabiting partners, 28, 36 welfare reform, 216, 279-280 employment, general, 1, 3, 4, 23, 26-28, Social Services Block Grant (SSBG), 253 31, 40, 204-206, 210-212 Special education, 118, 224 family economic well-being, 75 Sports and athletics, 47, 125, 132, 133, Hispanic, 206 135, 186, 187 historical perspectives, 1, 3, 4, 14, 23, SSBG, see Social Services Block Grant 26-29, 31, 40-41, 204-206 SSP, see Self Sufficiency Project maternal psychological well-being, 92 Standards never married, 28, 29, 44, 48, 51, 204 see also Regulations poverty, 14, 199, 206, 207 American Public Health Association, welfare reform, 75, 199-200, 204-206, 114-115 210-212, 213, 215-216, 219 caregiver/teacher qualifications, 6-7, 59, SIPP, see Survey of Income and Program 101, 114-115, 136-145, 150-151, Participation 256 Small businesses, leave policies, 231, 232 early childhood care, 6-7, 101, 256

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INDEX 351 State government, 6 T after-school programs, 247 child care development, 247-252, 255 TANF, see Temporary Assistance for Needy employer family leave policies, 262, 275, Families 279 Tax policies, 12, 18, 73 federal devolution of responsibilities to child tax credits, 238-239, 240 states, 6, 11-12, 200, 202-203 earned income tax credit (EITC), 12, 18, Head Start, 242-243 73, 199, 202, 203, 206, 207-208, Medicaid, 15 212, 220, 239-240 prekindergarten programs, 119, 242, family leave wages, temporary disability 269, 270-271 insurance (TDI) taxes, 231, 262, public education policy, 241-247 273-275 regulations, child care, 54-55, 58, 101, Teachers 255-256 early childhood, quality of, 10, 56-60 Social Services Block Grant, 253 (passim), 101, 107, 110, 112-113 21st Century Community Learning educational attainment, 10, 57-59, 101, Centers (CCLC), 7, 128-129, 114, 162-163 131, 246, 273 qualifications, standards, 6-7, 101 vouchers, child care, 7, 9, 248-249, 265, wages, 110 268, 271-272 Teen Outreach Program, 187, 188 welfare reform, 200, 202-203, 208-209 Teenage Parent Demonstration, 222 evaluation research methodology, 202 Temporary Assistance for Needy Families family caps, 219, 222 (TANF), 12, 14, 79, 199-226, State-level factors 250-254, 261, 264, 276 Cost, Quality, and Outcome Study see also Welfare reform (CQO), 59-61, 100-101, key provisions, 200 112-113, 143 Temporary employment, 15 Family and Relative Care Study, 101 Three-State Study, 101, 110 Three-State Study, 101, 110 Time factors Statistical analyses see also Leave policies; Longitudinal econometrics, 72, 110, 195, 209, 210, studies 216-217 adolescent crime, time of day, 180 maternal employment and child adolescents, 81, 126-128 (passim), 181- outcomes, 71 182, 192-193, 197-198 maternal leave and depression, 84, 93 after-school programs, 7, 125-126, 128, structural caregiver characteristics and 129-130, 272-273 process quality, 136-149 child care, general, 99, 103, 134, 262, unobserved factors, bias, 104 280 welfare reform, 201-202, 207, 208-209, child care centers, time spent in, 210-213, 216-217 103-104 Structured voluntary activities, 132-133, child care observation, 101-102, 105, 135, 187, 188 106 sports and athletics, 47, 125, 132, 133, early child care, 25, 26, 32-36, 99, 103, 135, 186, 187 120-121, 123-125 Study of Early Child Care, 61, 83, 84, 90, Early Head Start, 8, 270 100, 106-108, 112, 113, 123-125 Head Start, 6, 8, 265, 270 Substance abuse, 180, 192 hours of work, 15, 24, 29-31, 36-40, 44, Suicide, adolescents, 181 48, 49, 70, 83, 125 Summer Food Service Program (SFPS), household work, 23-24, 32, 33, 38, 39, 254-255 40, 81, 193 Survey of Income and Program Participation infant development and care time, (SIPP), 42-54, 181-182 120-121, 123-124

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352 INDEX leave from work, 2, 9, 83-84, 230, V 235-237, 276 leisure time, 31 Vacation and holidays, 230 maternal parenting, 93-94 see also Leave policies maternal wage penalty, experience/ Voluntary activities, see Structured seniority, 31-32 voluntary activities non-parental child care, general, 1, 2, Vouchers, 7, 9, 248-249, 265, 268, 271-272 3-4, 10, 45, 46, 48, 67, 99 parental child care, 32-36, 221 peers, time spent with, 128 W process quality, 25, 26, 32-36, 99, 103, Wages and salaries 120-121, 123-125 adolescent employment, future wages, self-care, 126-128 (passim), 181-182 194 shift workers, 36, 37, 45, 48, 49, 52, caregiver, 110, 144-145, 164 182 earned income tax credit (EITC), 12, 18, structured voluntary activities, 132-133 73, 199, 202, 203, 206, 207-208, time diaries, 31, 32-36 212, 220, 239-240 welfare, benefit time limits, 199, 200, health insurance, low-wage employment, 203, 209, 210-211, 214 15 work schedules, 15, 24, 36-40, 41, 45, husband's earnings, wife's employment, 56 29 Training, see Education and training, leave policies, 230, 232, 233, 235-237, professional 265-266 Transportation costs, 15 low-income, 14-15 adolescents, 189-190 maternal penalty, 31-32 costs, welfare-to-work, 14, 203 minimum wage, 202 21st Century Community Learning Centers teachers, 110 (CCLC), 7, 128-129, 131, 246, temporary disability insurance (TDI), 273 231, 262, 273-275 unemployment insurance as pay U substitute, 273, 274 welfare reform and, 203, 206-208, 211 Unskilled workers, 14-15, 38 wives as primary earners, 31-32, 40-41 Urban areas Welfare after-school programs, 128, 129 see also Aid to Families with Dependent Chicago Parent-Child Centers, 117 Children; Early Head Start; Head child care arrangements, general, 45, 49 Start; Poverty; Welfare reform Family and Relative Care Study, 101 adolescent employment, 191 National Child Care Staffing Study, 59, Child and Adult Care Food Program, 60, 101, 108, 110 254 National Day Care Study, 101 child care arrangements of recipients, self-care, 126 44, 48 shift work, 38 early childhood education as program Study of Early Child Care, 61, 83, 84, participation, 118 90, 100, 106-108 Head Start, 254 welfare reform, impacts on children, historical perspectives, 2, 5, 12, 14, 219, 224 199-201 U.S. Child Care Workforce and Caregiving housing, 208, 220 Population, 55-56 Medicaid, 15, 75, 208

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INDEX 353 nutrition, food stamps, 45, 49, 75, 220 historical perspectives, 2, 12, 199-201, part-time employment, 206-207, 202, 204-207, 209-226 (passim) 214 hours-of-work requirements, 200, Summer Food Service Program, 254 214-215 Survey of Income and Program immigrants, 200 Participation (SIPP), 42-54, income family, impact on, 203, 206-208, 181-182 211, 212-215, 220, 221 Title I preschool program, 245 infants, 83, 205 Welfare reform, 9, 14, 38, 64, 65, 69, 70, job training, 116, 119-121, 220 71, 95, 96-97, 199-226 leaver studies, 202, 206, 209, 211-212, see also Personal Responsibility and 213, 216-217 Work Opportunities Act; maternal employment, general, 14, 38, Temporary Assistance for Needy 64, 65, 69, 199, 200, 203 Families maternal parenting, 76-80 (passim), 87 academic achievement, 215, 220, 224, marital status, impact on, 200, 205, 212, 225, 226 215-216, 218-219 adolescents, 79-82, 219-220, 222, National Evaluation of Welfare-to-Work 223-226 Strategies, 74, 87, 222-223 attitudes toward, 221 parenting, adolescents, 79-82 block grants, 200, 250-254, 265, 272 part-time employment, 206-207, 214 Canada, work requirements, 214-215 research methodology, 201-202, caseloads, 200, 202, 203, 204-206, 279-280 209-211 single mothers, 75, 199-200, 204-206, child care centers, 223, 226 210-212, 213, 215-216, 219 child care costs/benefits, 200, 203, 207, social development, 216, 279-280 221-226, 272 state-level variations, 202-203 child care homes, 223 statistical analyses, 201-202, 207, child well-being, 216-226 208-209, 210-213, 216-217 cognitive development of child, 216, time limits for benefits, 199, 200, 203, 217, 219, 222, 279 209, 210-211, 214, 215, 220, disabled persons, 25, 118, 224 221 earned income tax credit (EITC), 12, 18, transportation assistance, 203 73, 199, 202, 203, 206, 207-208, urban areas, impacts on children, 219, 212, 220, 239-240 224 econometrics, 209, 210, 216-217 waiver programs, 74(n.2), 199, 200, economic factors, general, 209 213-214 economic cycles, 204, 208, 210, 212 work incentives, financial, 200, 203, incentives, 70, 77, 78, 97, 98, 203, 207, 210, 214-215, 219, 220, 214-215 221, 225 educational attainment, 76, 119, 203 work search requirements/benefits, 203, exemptions, 200 209, 214-215, 218, 220, 221, family economics, 74, 75, 272 222 family functioning, 69, 70, 71, 74-82 Who Cares for America's Children, 16, 99, (passim), 92-93, 95, 96-98, 111 217-219, 220, 221-222 Widowed persons, 28, 29, 235 Family Support Act, 199, 220 child care arrangements, 44, 48 fertility, 200, 215-216, 219, 222 child care expenditures, 51 Head Start, 119 Wisconsin Family and Work Project, 102 health status of affected, general, Women, see Gender factors; Maternal 224-225 employment; Single mothers

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354 INDEX Work and Family: Policies for a Changing nonstandard, 24, 36-40, 41, 56, 70, Work Force, 16 88-89, 128, 182 Work schedules, 15, 24, 36-40, 41, 45, 56 shift work, 36, 37, 45, 48, 49, 52, see also Leave policies 182 child care arrangements, 44, 48, 49, 52, 53-54 child care expenditures, 52 Y flextime, 230 leave policies, 2, 9, 83-84, 230, Young children, see also Early childhood care/education; Preschool children 235-237 Younger Americans Act, 188 Youth, see Adolescents