There could be irresistible pressure to institutionalize outsiders into an organization—especially if the outsiders are successful. Formal structures, titles, budgets, and other processes may evolve. Such developments may be essential to some degree, but this institutionalization would have to be monitored carefully. Formalization may undercut the effectiveness of the outsiders if priorities shift toward the protection of budgets and outsiders are enculturated to become insiders. To ensure fresh perspectives, it may be that the tenure of outsiders should be limited to a relatively short period of time.
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5. Venues for Information Technology and Creative Practices ."
Beyond Productivity: Information, Technology, Innovation, and Creativity . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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