Appendixes



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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity Appendixes

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity This page in the original is blank.

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity A Biographies of Committee Members and Staff WILLIAM J. MITCHELL, Chair, is professor of architecture and media arts and sciences and dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He has demonstrated an unusual interest in how technology and society interact, team-teaching with software innovator Mitch Kapor and spearheading the development of a new program within the School of Architecture/Department of Urban Studies and Planning in that area. He has developed software and engaged in distance learning, and he oversees the MIT Media Laboratory, an alternative (to the mainstream) concentration of information technology expertise at MIT. Mitchell teaches courses and conducts research in design theory, computer applications in architecture and urban design, and imaging and image synthesis. He consults extensively in the field of computer-aided design and was the co-founder of a California software company. He has served recently on the Council for the Arts and Technology at Central State University (Ohio). Mitchell came to MIT in 1992 from the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University. From 1970 to 1986, he was on the faculty of the School of Architecture and Planning at the University of California at Los Angeles. He has also taught at Yale, Carnegie Mellon, and Cambridge Universities. Mitchell holds a B.A. from Melbourne University, a master of environmental design from Yale University, and an M.A. from Cambridge University. Among his many writings is City of Bits. STEVEN ABRAMS manages the Business and Application Modeling group in the Software Technology Department at IBM Research. With that team, he researches and develops tools that help people describe, architect, visualize, validate, and develop enterprise applications more easily and naturally than traditional tools. He originally joined IBM in 1992 to develop two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometric processing algorithms and system architecture for a rapid prototyping

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity system in the Manufacturing Research group, while pursuing his Ph.D. He then joined Stratasys Inc., where he helped to commercialize the rapid prototyping technology developed at IBM. After finishing his Ph.D., he rejoined IBM Research, working in the Computer Music Center. As manager of that department, he led a series of projects that revolve around music, art, and creativity. One goal of the work of the Computer Music Center was to develop a better understanding of how people work on creative tasks in general, and how technology can better support people in these tasks. In his new role, Abrams is taking lessons learned from the music domain and applying them to the creative tasks of designing, architecting, and developing software systems. Abrams studied at Columbia University, where he earned B.S. and M.S. degrees in computer science from the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences in 1990 and 1991, respectively, and the M. Phil. and Ph.D. degrees from the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences in 1993 and 1997, respectively. His Ph.D. thesis was on sensor planning for robots in an active environment, focusing on multidimensional modeling and manipulation of computer vision constraints and the computation of three-dimensional swept volumes. MICHAEL CENTURY is chair of the Arts Department at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, which he joined in August 2002. Long associated with the Banff Centre for the Arts, Century founded the Centre’s Media Arts Division in 1988 and instigated the Art and Virtual Environments project (1991-1994). From 1993 to 1996, Century was a program manager at the Canadian Centre for Information Technology Innovation (CITI), a federal research laboratory located in Montréal, with responsibility for new-media arts funding. From 1996 to 1998, he served as policy advisor to the federal department of Canadian Heritage. Since September 1997, he has been the principal of Next Century Consultants, focusing on new media and cultural policy for various public and university sector clients. From 1997 to 2001 he was a research fellow and adjunct professor at the Graduate Program in Communications, McGill University, Montréal. For the Rockefeller Foundation, he researched and wrote a report in 1999 entitled Pathways to Innovation in Digital Culture. He was educated in humanities, piano performance, and musicology at the University of Toronto (B.A.), the University of California at Berkeley (M.A.), and the University of Iowa (M.A). He has recently completed a historical study of the transition from analog to digital techniques in animation as a doctoral dissertation in science and technology policy studies at the University of Sussex. JAMES P. CRUTCHFIELD received his B.A. in physics and mathematics in 1979 and his Ph.D. in physics in 1983 from the University of California at Santa Cruz. He is currently a research professor at the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) after 14 years in the Department of Physics at the University of California at Berkeley (UCB). He maintains a re

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity search group at SFI that includes postdoctoral researchers and Ph.D. students. Currently he is an adjunct professor of physics in the Physics Department at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. He was a visiting research professor at the Sloan Center for Theoretical Neurobiology at the University of California, San Francisco, a postdoctoral fellow of the Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science at UCB, a UCB Physics Department IBM postdoctoral fellow in condensed matter physics, a distinguished visiting research professor of the Beckman Institute at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, and a Bernard Osher Fellow at the San Francisco Exploratorium. At the exploratorium, he helped design and mount the “Turbulent Landscapes” exhibit series on chaos, complexity, and pattern formation. This exhibit series was funded by the National Science Foundation and Department of Energy and was on display from June 1996 through January 1997. It is currently touring the nation’s science museums. Crutchfield has several publications, his most recent being Quantum Automata and Quantum Grammars, Theoretical Computer Science (2000). CHRISTOPHER CSIKSZENTMIHALYI is a member of the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Laboratory. Previously, he was an assistant professor of electronic art at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He has worked in the intersection of new technologies, media, and the arts for 8 years, lecturing, showing new-media work, and presenting installations in both Europe and North America. His most recent piece, Natural Language Processor, was commissioned by the KIASMA Museum in Helsinki, Finland. He has an M.F.A. from the University of California at San Diego (1998) and a B.F.A. from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. ROGER DANNENBERG is a senior research computer scientist on the faculty of Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science. Dannenberg’s current work includes research on music understanding, the automated accompaniment of live musicians, and the design and implementation of high-level languages and systems for real-time control and signal processing. His current artistic direction is toward real-time integrated computer music and computer graphics performance systems, for which he has developed tools for rapid software prototyping. Dannenberg has a broad background in electrical engineering and computer science. His publications include work on computer music, human-computer interaction, program verification, programming language design, computer architecture, and computer networks. Dannenberg is also a musician and composer. He performs frequently on trumpet in classical, jazz, and contemporary ensembles and writes works for electronic and conventional media. Dannenberg earned his Ph.D. (1982) and an M.S. in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University, as well as an M.S. in computer engineering from Case Western Reserve University. He also has a B.S. degree in electrical engineering from Rice University.

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity TONI DOVE is an artist who works primarily with electronic media, including virtual reality and interactive video laser disk installations that engage viewers in responsive and immersive narrative environments. Her work has been presented in the United States, Europe, and Canada, as well as in print and on radio and television. Her most recently completed project, Artificial Changelings (1993-1998), is an interactive narrative installation that uses video motion sensing to track the location and movements of a viewer standing in front of a large screen and translates them into changes in image and sound. A sci-fi romance about shopping, this interactive movie follows the life of Arathusa, a kleptomaniac in 19th-century Paris during the rise of the department store, who is dreaming about Zilith, an encryption hacker in the future with a mission. It debuted at the Rotterdam Film Festival in 1998 and was part of the exhibition “Body Mécanique” at the Wexner Center for the Arts and at the Computing Commons Gallery at Arizona State University during the Performance Studies International Conference in March 2000. A new piece currently under development, Spectropia, will be a feature-length interactive movie. It will be performed by two players on multiple screens for an audience in a theatrical setting or experienced by two individuals interacting at the same time as a single-screen serial installation in three parts over a more extended time period. The second phase of the proposal is to port the project to a component-based DVD system for a shared interactive narrative experience in the living room. A research fellowship from the Institute for Studies in the Arts at Arizona State University will provide the programming and engineering resources to develop the technology prototype. N. KATHERINE HAYLES, professor of English and media arts at the University of California at Los Angeles, teaches and writes on the relationships of science, technology, and literature in the 20th century. Her most recent book, How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature and Informatics (1999), won the Rene Wellek Prize for the best book in literary theory. Her current projects include two new books, Coding the Signifier: Rethinking Semiosis from the Telegraph to the Computer and Linking Bodies: Hypertext Fiction in Print and New Media. Her work has been recognized by a Guggenheim Fellowship, two fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanities, a Rockefeller Residential Fellowship in Bellagio, and numerous prizes and awards, including the Distinguished Scholar Medal from the University of Rochester and the Medal of Honor from Helsinki University. J.C. HERZ (jc@joysticknation.com) is the principal of Joystick Nation Inc., a research and design practice that applies the principles of complex systems to the design of products, services, and brands. Drawing from an understanding of ecology, online social dynamics, computer games, and information theory, Joystick Nation’s focus is multiplayer interaction design and systems that leverage the intrinsic characteris

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity tics of networked communication. Clients include multinational corporations, high-tech start-ups, and military research organizations. She is the author of two books, Surfing on the Internet (Little Brown, 1994), an ethnography of cyberspace before the Web, and Joystick Nation: How Videogames Ate Our Quarters, Won Our Hearts, and Rewired Our Minds (Little, Brown, 1997), a history of video games that traces the cultural and technological evolution of the first medium that was born digital, and explores how it shaped the minds of a generation weaned on Atari. Herz published 100 essays on the grammar and syntax of game design in the New York Times between 1998 and 2000.1 She has conducted workshops on game design and learning and has spoken at technology and design conferences, including Technology Entertainment Design (TED) in Monterey, SIGGRAPH, E3, Game Developers’ Conference, and the Forum on the Future of Higher Education at the Aspen Institute. Herz sits on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s study group on patterns of emergent behavior in massively multiplayer persistent worlds. NATALIE JEREMIJENKO is a design engineer and techno-artist. Recently, she was named one of the top 100 young innovators by the MIT Technology Review, her work was featured in the Tate Gallery Cream 2, and a large project was commissioned for the opening of the museum MASSMoCA (<www.massmoca.org>). Her work includes digital, electromechanical, and interactive systems in addition to biotechnological work and has appeared in the Rotterdam Film Festival (2000), the Guggenheim Museum, New York (1999), the Museum Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt, the LUX Gallery, London (1999), the Whitney Biennial ‘97, Documenta ‘97, and Prix Ars Electronica ‘96, presented at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. She was a 1999 Rockefeller fellow. She did graduate studies at Stanford University in mechanical engineering and at the University of Melbourne in the History and Philosophy of Science Department, and her Ph.D. is in the Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Queensland. As the director of the Engineering Design Studio at Yale University she is developing and implementing new courses in technological innovation. She is also affiliated with the Media Research Lab/Center for Advanced Technology in the Computer Science Department at New York University, where she did postdoctoral studies. Other research positions include several years at Xerox PARC in the computer science lab and a position at the Advanced Computer Graphics Lab, RMIT University. Jeremijenko has also been on the faculty in digital media and computer art at the School of Visual Art, New York, and the San Francisco Art Institute. She is known to work for the Bureau of Inverse Technology. 1   Available online at <www.nytimes.com/library/tech/reference/indexgametheory.html>.

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity JOHN MAEDA, Sony Career Development Professor of Media Arts and Sciences, is an associate professor of design and computation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Media Laboratory. Maeda attended MIT, where he was awarded bachelor’s and master’s degrees in computer science in 1989. He completed his doctoral studies in graphic design at the Tsukuba University Institute of Art and Design in Tsukuba, Japan. There, he began to experiment with ideas on ways to bond the simplicity of good graphic design together with the complex nature of the computer. Those experiments grew into a series of five books, called Reactive Books, that are a worldwide-recognized standard for high-quality digital media design. His commercial work for Shiseido Cosmetics, Sony, and Morisawa was honored in 1996 in the one-man exhibition “John Maeda: Paper and Computer” at the Ginza Graphic Gallery in Tokyo, Japan, and at the Dai Nippon Duo Dojima Gallery in Osaka, Japan. In 1999, he produced Design by Numbers (MIT Press), which outlines the theoretical underpinnings of his work as a combination of graphical examples and codes. His latest book, MAEDA@MEDIA (Thames & Hudson/ Rizzoli, 2000), outlines his design and technology philosophy. John Maeda’s awards include the 1994 Japan Multimedia Grand Prix for “The Reactive Square,” the 1996 Tokyo Type Director’s Club Gold Prize for his series of 10 posters for Morisawa, the 1997 Tokyo Type Director’s Club Interactive Prize for “12 o’clocks,” the 1999 Japan Ministry of Culture Interactive Prize for “one-line.com,” the 1999 ID Magazine Gold Prize, the 1999 Milia d’Or nomination, and the 1999 New York Art Director’s Club New Media Gold Award for “Tap, Type, Write.” He is also a 1999 recipient of the Daimler-Chrysler Design Award. He is an honorary member of the Tokyo Type Director’s Club and is on the national board of directors of the American Institute of Graphic Arts. DAVID SALESIN is a professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Washington, where he has been on the faculty since 1992, and a senior researcher at Microsoft Research, where he has also worked since 1999. He received his Sc.B. from Brown University in 1983 and his Ph.D. from Stanford University in 1991. From 1983 to 1987, he worked at Lucasfilm and Pixar, where he contributed computer animation for the Academy Award-winning short film Tin Toy and the feature-length film Young Sherlock Holmes. During his years at Stanford, he also worked as an intern at the DEC Systems Research Center and Paris Research Lab. In 1991-1992, he spent a year on leave as a visiting assistant professor in the Program of Computer Graphics at Cornell University. He has consulted at Sogitec Audiovisual, Aldus (now part of Adobe), Xerox PARC, Broderbund, and Microsoft Research. In 1996, he co-founded two start-up companies, where he served as chief scientist: Inklination and Numinous Technologies (acquired by Microsoft in 1999). Salesin received an NSF Young Investigator Award in 1993; an ONR Young Investigator Award, an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, and an

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity NSF Presidential Faculty Fellow Award in 1995; the University of Washington Award for Outstanding Faculty Achievement in the College of Engineering in 1996; the University of Washington Distinguished Teaching Award in 1997; the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching and the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education 1998-1999 Washington Professor of the Year Award in 1998; and the ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics Achievement Award in 2000. Salesin’s research interests are in computer graphics and include non-photo realistic rendering, image-based rendering, color reproduction, digital typography, and compositing. LILLIAN F. SCHWARTZ is best known for her pioneering work in the use of computers for what has since become known as computer-generated art and computer-aided art analysis, including graphics, film, video, animation, special effects, virtual reality, and multimedia. Her work was recognized for its aesthetic success and was the first in this medium to be acquired by the Museum of Modern Art. Her contributions in starting a new field of endeavor in the arts, art analysis, and the field of virtual reality have recently earned her Computerworld Smithsonian Awards. Schwartz began her computer art career as an offshoot of her merger of art and technology, which culminated in the selection of her kinetic sculpture, Proxima Centauri, by the Museum of Modern Art for its epoch-making “1968 Machine Exhibition.” She then expanded her work into the computer area, becoming a consultant at the AT&T Bell Laboratories, IBM’s Thomas J. Watson Research Laboratory, and Lucent Technologies, Bell Labs Innovations. On her own, and with leading scientists, engineers, physicists, and psychologists, she developed effective techniques for the use of the computer in film and animation. Besides establishing computer art as a viable field of endeavor, Schwartz additionally contributed to scientific research areas such as visual and color perception and sound. Her own personal efforts have led to the use of the computer in the philosophy of art, whereby databases containing information as to palettes and structures of paintings, sculptures, and graphics by artists such as Picasso and Matisse are used by Schwartz to analyze the choices of those artists and to investigate the creative process itself. Her contributions to electronic art analysis and restoration, specifically in Italian Renaissance painting and fresco, have been recognized. Schwartz’s work has been much in demand internationally both by museums and festivals. Schwartz has always had close ties to the academic community, having been a visiting member in the computer science departments and psychology departments of several universities and colleges. She has also been awarded numerous fellowships and honors. There are several books that include her work, the most recent being The Web (2000), by Bridget Mintz Testa. She has also written, with Laurens Schwartz, The Computer Artist’s Handbook (1992). For other publications, awards, lectures, collections, exhibitions, films, and videos, see <http://www.lillian.com>.

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity PHOEBE SENGERS is an assistant professor in the Computing and Information Science Department and in Science and Technology Studies at Cornell University. Her work synthesizes cultural studies and computer science, by building new technology based on a cultural critique of existing research practices and assumptions. Results of this work are evident in three areas: technical advances in artificial intelligence, human-computer interaction, and media research; cultural analyses of technical practices; and explorations of strategies for cross-disciplinary synthesis between the two cultures of the humanities/ arts and the sciences/technology. Sengers graduated in 1998 from Carnegie Mellon University with a self-defined cross-disciplinary Ph.D. in artificial intelligence and cultural theory. In 1998-1999, she was a Fulbright guest researcher at the Center for Art and Media Technology (ZKM) in Karlsruhe, Germany. From 1999 to 2001, she was a research scientist in Media Arts Research Studies at the German National Research Center for Information Technology (GMD). In 1999, Lingua Franca named her one of the top 20 researchers most likely to change the way we think about technology. BARBARA STAFFORD is the William B. Ogden Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago in the Department of Art History. Her special interests include the relationships of art, science, and medicine in the early-modern period, and the history of perception, visualization, and the intellectual and cultural development of body imagery. She also works on contemporary media and visualization technologies. Her focus is on the intersections between the arts and sciences in the early-modern and modern periods. She writes contemporary art criticism and serves as a visiting critic. Professor Stafford is continuing her work on analogy and neurobiology and presented an exhibition on visionary technologies at the Getty Museum, Los Angeles, from November 2000 through February 2001. Stafford has written several books, including Visual Analogy: Consciousness as the Art of Connecting (MIT Press, 1999), Good Looking (1996), and Essays on the Virtue of Images (1996). She has also written several articles, including “A Range of Critical Perspectives: Digital Imagery and the Practices of Art History,” Arts Education Policy Review (July-August 1998), and “To Collage or E-Collage?” Harvard Design Magazine (Fall 1998). Stafford has also delivered several lectures, her most recent being “Old Mind/ New Mind: The Role of Images in the Consciousness Debates” (Wonder Conference, Santa Barbara, March 2000). In May 1998 she spoke on computers and writing at the University of Florida, Gainesville, and in April 1998 she was a speaker in the Jurassic Technology series at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago. Stafford received her Ph.D. in art history from the University of Chicago, as well as an M.A. in art history and a B.A. in philosophy and comparative literature from Northwestern University.

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity Staff ALAN S. INOUYE is the study director for the Committee on Information Technology and Creativity, which created Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity, and is a senior program officer at the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board (CSTB). Inouye has a wide range of interests at the intersection of the social sciences (especially sociology, economics, political science, and organization theory) and information technology. His current projects include congressionally mandated studies on Internet navigation and the Domain Name System and improving cybersecurity research in the United States. His recently completed CSTB studies include LC21: A Digital Strategy for the Library of Congress (2001), The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age (2000), and Trust in Cyberspace (1999). Prior to joining CSTB, Inouye completed a Ph.D. from the School of Information Management and Systems at the University of California at Berkeley. In a previous life, Inouye worked in Silicon Valley, as a programmer (Atari Corporation), statistician and programmer/analyst (Verbatim Corporation), and manager of information systems (Amdahl Corporation). Inouye also completed other degrees—in information systems (M.S.), systems management (M.S.), business administration/finance (M.B.A.), liberal studies (B.S.), and mathematics (B.A.). MARJORY S. BLUMENTHAL is the executive director of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board—a 20-member Board of leaders from industry and academia—and its many expert project committees and staff. She designs, develops, directs, and oversees collaborative study projects, workshops, and symposia on technical, strategic, and policy issues in computing and telecommunications. These activities address trends in the relevant science and technology, their uses, and economic and social impacts, providing independent and authoritative analysis and/or a neutral meeting ground for senior people in government, industry, and academia. Marjory is the principal author and/or substantive editor of numerous reports and articles. The majority of her work has been cross-disciplinary. Before joining CSTB, Marjory was a manager of Competitive Analysis and Planning for GE Information Services. There she directed an analytical team supporting business development, product marketing, and field sales and developed business alliances for domestic and international network services. Previously, she was a project director at the former U.S. Congress Office of Technology Assessment, evaluating computer and communications technology trends and their social and economic impacts. There, among other things, she produced an internationally acclaimed study of computers in manufacturing and their implications for industries and employment. She is a member of the Santa Fe Institute Science Board, the Advisory Board of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, the TPRC Board of Directors, the editorial board of ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, and the ACM, AEA,

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Beyond Productivity: Information Technology, Innovation, and Creativity and IEEE. In 1998 Marjory was a visiting scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for Computer Science. At MIT she developed and taught a course on public policy for computer science graduate students and pursued personal research interests. Marjory did her undergraduate work at Brown University and her graduate work (as an NSF Graduate Fellow) at Harvard University. MARGARET MARSH HUYNH, senior project assistant, joined the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board in January 1999 and has worked on several projects. Currently, she is working on the projects on Internet navigation and the Domain Name System and the future of supercomputing. Ms. Huynh also assists with CSTB Board meetings and has worked on such recent projects as “Exploring Information Technology Issues for the Behavioral and Social Sciences,” as well as those leading to the reports IT Roadmap to a Geospatial Future (2003), Building a Workforce for the Information Economy (2001), and The Digital Dilemma: Intellectual Property in the Information Age (2000). Ms. Huynh assists on other projects as needed. Prior to coming to the National Academies, Ms. Huynh worked as a meeting assistant at Management for Meetings for 4 months and as a meeting assistant at the American Society for Civil Engineers from September 1996 to April 1998. Ms. Huynh has a B.A. (1990) in liberal studies, with minors in sociology and psychology, from Salisbury State University, Salisbury, Maryland.