Finally, some areas of great interest to artists are not well served by programming languages, which tend to be driven by science, engineering, the Web, and more commercial application areas. Some of the topics discussed above, especially distributed control, video and audio processing, and generative processes, could be supported better by languages. Languages are particularly important for specifying interactive behavior and generative processes, an area not well supported by commercial software. Because a great deal of creative activity involves combining existing concepts in new ways, and because programming languages provide the glue for assembling software tools and libraries into applications, languages are critical to innovation. Progress has been achieved in making programming languages simpler for novice programmers, but this work needs to be adapted to support more creative work.