As a first step in assisting the LEPCs, EPA identified approximately 400 EHSs largely on the basis of their “immediately dangerous to life and health” (IDLH) values developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in experimental animals. Although several public and private groups, such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), have established exposure limits for some substances and some exposures (e.g., workplace or ambient air quality), these limits are not easily or directly translated into emergency exposure limits for exposures at high levels but of short duration, usually less than 1 h, and only once in a lifetime for the general population, which includes infants, children, the elderly, and persons with diseases, such as asthma, heart disease, or lung disease.

The National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Toxicology (COT) has published many reports on emergency exposure guidance levels and spacecraft maximum allowable concentrations for chemicals used by the Department of Defense (DOD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) (NRC 1968, 1972, 1984a,b,c,d, 1985a,b, 1986a,b, 1987, 1988, 1994, 1996a,b, 2000). COT has also published guidelines for developing emergency exposure guidance levels for military personnel and for astronauts (NRC 1986b, 1992). Because of COT’s experience in recommending emergency exposure levels for short-term exposures, in 1991 EPA and ATSDR requested that COT develop criteria and methods for developing emergency exposure levels for EHSs for the general population. In response to that request, the NRC assigned this project to the COT Subcommittee on Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances. The report of that subcommittee, Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances (NRC 1993), provides step-by-step guidance for setting emergency exposure levels for EHSs. Guidance is given on what data are needed, what data are available, how to evaluate the data, and how to present the results.

In November 1995, the National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances (NAC)1 was established to identify, review, and interpret relevant toxicologic and other scientific data and to develop acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for high-

1  

NAC is composed of members from EPA, DOD, many other federal and state agencies, industry, academia, and other organizations. The roster of NAC is shown on page 8.



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