provide a degree of specificity to the analysis of salient issues that would not otherwise be possible from voluntary surveys administered to a much smaller sample of schools.

Whatever the cause or causes, evidence of disparities among groups of students is information that is useful not only for civil rights enforcement, but also for informing efforts to achieve the twin goals of educational excellence and equity, as articulated in the No Child Left Behind Act. The E&S survey’s capacity to provide disaggregated information about the distribution of various kinds of disparities for categories of students identified in civil rights laws, and to do so for specific, identifiable schools and districts, is a useful starting point for more comprehensive analyses of the underlying causes of inequality. This information is important not only for civil rights enforcement by OCR, but also for use by parents and other concerned citizens with civil rights concerns or who seek to improve educational opportunities and outcomes for children.

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