In the absence of additional information from other surveys or from field research, the E&S survey data cannot by themselves prove whether racial differences in assignment to special education or other aspects of schooling that are addressed by the survey are the result of discrimination or constitute violations of students’ civil rights. Indeed, the survey was never intended to be used as the sole source of information about discrimination.
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2. Measuring Equal Opportunity: The Role of the E&S Survey ."
Measuring Access to Learning Opportunities . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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