MEASURING ACCESS TO LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES

Committee on Improving Measures of Access to Equal Educational Opportunity

Willis D. Hawley and Timothy Ready, Editors

Center for Education and Committee on National Statistics

Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu



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MEASURING ACCESS TO LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES Committee on Improving Measures of Access to Equal Educational Opportunity Willis D. Hawley and Timothy Ready, Editors Center for Education and Committee on National Statistics Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. R215U990016-01B between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Education. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Improving Measures of Access to Equal Educational Opportunity. Measuring access to learning opportunities / Committee on Improving Measures of Access to Equal Educational Opportunity ; Willis D. Hawley and Timothy Ready, editors. p. cm. “Center for Education and Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.” Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-309-08897-6 (pbk.) 1. Educational equalization—United States. 2. Minority students—Civil rights—United States. 3. Educational surveys—United States. I. Hawley, Willis D. II. Ready, Timothy. III. Title. LC213.2.N396 2003 379.2´6´0973—dc21 2003007413 International Standard Book Number 0-309-50539-9 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2003). Measuring access to learning opportunities. Committee on Improving Measures of Access to Equal Educational Opportunity. W.D. Hawley and T. Ready, editors. Center for Education and Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON IMPROVING MEASURES OF ACCESS TO EQUAL EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY WILLIS D. HAWLEY (Chair), Department of Educational Policy, University of Maryland JULIAN BETTS, Department of Economics, University of California, San Diego JOMILLS H. BRADDOCK II, Department of Sociology, University of Miami GARNET (LAVAN) DUKES, Florida Department of Education, Tallahassee JOAN FIRST, National Coalition of Advocates for Students, Boston, MA JOHN FORREST KAIN, Cecil and Ida Green Center for the Study of Science and Society, University of Texas, Dallas VALERIE E. LEE, School of Education, University of Michigan WEI-WEI LOU, Portland Public Schools, Oregon JENS LUDWIG, Public Policy Institute, Georgetown University GARY ORFIELD, Harvard Graduate School of Education TIMOTHY READY, Study Director PASQUALE DE VITO, Senior Program Officer ANDREW TOMPKINS, Research Assistant TERRY HOLMER, Senior Project Assistant

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CENTER FOR EDUCATION BOARD MEMBERS (2002–2003) RICHARD MURNANE (Chair), Graduate School of Education, Harvard University GORDON AMBACH, Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington, DC JAMES D. ANDERSON, Educational Policy Studies, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign HANNA J. ARZI, Science Education Consultant, Tel Aviv, Israel DEANNA BANKS BEANE, Association of Science-Technology Centers, Inc., Washington, DC ALFREDO G. DE LOS SANTOS, JR., Hispanic Research Center, Arizona State University DENIS P. DOYLE, SchoolNet, Chevy Chase, MD MEL GEORGE, President Emeritus, University of Missouri MILTON GOLDBERG, National Alliance of Business, Washington, DC RON LATANISION, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ROBERT LINN, School of Education, University of Colorado RICHARD MCCRAY, Department of Astro and Planet Sciences, University of Colorado MARGE PETIT, The National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment, Dover, NH ROBERT SCHWARTZ, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University MARSHALL (MIKE) SMITH, The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, Menlo Park, CA CATHERINE SNOW, Graduate School of Education, Harvard University IRIS WEISS, Horizon Research, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC

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COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS (2002–2003) JOHN E. ROLPH (Chair), Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California JOSEPH G. ALTONJI, Department of Economics, Yale University ROBERT BELL, AT&T Research Laboratories, Florham Park, NJ LAWRENCE BROWN, Department of Statistics, University of Pennsylvania ROBERT M. GROVES, Survey Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor HERMANN HABERMANN, Statistics Division, United Nations, New York City JOEL L. HOROWITZ, Department of Economics, Northwestern University WILLIAM KALSBEEK, Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill ARLEEN LEIBOWITZ, School of Public Policy and Social Research, University of California, Los Angeles THOMAS A. LOUIS, Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University VIJAYAN NAIR, Department of Statistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor DARYL PREGIBON, AT&T Research Laboratories, Florham Park, NJ NORA CATE SCHAEFFER, Department of Social Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison MATTHEW D. SHAPIRO, Department of Economics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ANDREW A. WHITE, Director

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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Robert Bell, AT&T Research Laboratories, Florham Park, NJ; Sue Berryman, World Bank, Washington, DC; Tamela Lea Eitle, University of Miami, FL; Scott Palmer, Nixon Peabody LLP, Washington, DC; Dennis Parker, NAACP Legal Defense & Educational Fund, Inc., New York; Paul Smith, Children’s Defense Fund, Washington, DC; Karl Taeuber, University of Wisconsin-Madison; William L. Taylor, Law Offices of William L. Taylor, Washington, DC; J. Douglas Willms, University of Brunswick, Fredericton, NB. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by William T. Trent, Department of Educational Policy Studies, University of Illinois-Champaign. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Contents Executive Summary   1 1 Introduction   7 2 Measuring Equal Opportunity: The Role of the E&S Survey   19 3 Use of E&S Survey Data   36 4 Strengthening the E&S Survey Data   46 5 Improving the Survey and Its Use   60 References and Bibliography   70 APPENDIXES     A Synopses of Papers Prepared for the Committee   77 B Overview of Findings from the 2000 E&S Survey   88 C 2000 E&S Survey   100 D Using E&S Survey Data in Combination with Other Federal Datasets   120

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