Biographical Memoirs

NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES



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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 82 Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 82 This page in the original is blank.

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 82 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 82 THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 82 The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. Any opinions expressed in this memoir are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Academy of Sciences. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-08698-1 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 FIFTH STREET, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20001 COPYRIGHT 2003 BY THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 82 CONTENTS     PREFACE   vii     JOHN DAVID AXTELL BY ARNEL R.HALLAUER   3     MAXIME BÔCHER BY WILLIAM F.OSGOOD   19     JOHN ROBERT BORCHERT BY JOHN S.ADAMS AND VERNON W.RUTTAN   41     WALLACE REED BRODE BY DONALD S.McCLURE   65     RICHARD COURANT BY PETER D.LAX   79     GÉRARD DE VAUCOULEURS BY E.MARGARET BURBIDGE   99     PAUL JOHN FLORY BY WILLIAM S.JOHNSON, WALTER H.STOCKMAYER, AND HENRY TAUBE   115

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 82     JOSEF FRIED BY NELSON J.LEONARD AND ELKAN BLOUT   143     JACK RODNEY HARLAN BY THEODORE HYMOWITZ   159     ARTHUR DAVIS HASLER BY GENE E.LIKENS   171     WALTER DAVID KNIGHT BY ERWIN L.HAHN, VITALY V.KRESIN, AND JOHN H.REYNOLDS   185     ERWIN W.MÜLLER BY ALLAN J.MELMED   199     SARAH RATNER BY RONALD BENTLEY   221     ABRAHAM ROBINSON BY JOSEPH W.DAUBEN   243     DONALD C.SHREFFLER BY CHELLA DAVID   287     CECIL H.WADLEIGH BY WILFORD R.GARDNER   307     HERMANN WEYL BY MICHAEL ATIYAH   321     RAYMOND LOUIS WILDER BY FRANK RAYMOND   337     OLIN CHADDOCK WILSON BY HELMUT A.ABT   353     JACOB WOLFOWITZ BY SHELEMYAHU ZACKS   373

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 82 PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham Lincoln signed the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sciences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scientists, elected for outstanding contributions to knowledge, who can be called upon to advise the federal government. As an institution the Academy’s goal is to work toward increasing scientific knowledge and to further the use of that knowledge for the general good. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories and selected bibliographies of deceased members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the discipline and the subject’s work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a record of the life and work of our most distinguished leaders in the sciences, as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. They form a biographical history of science in America—an important part of our nation’s contribution to the intellectual heritage of the world. R. STEPHEN BERRY Home Secretary

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Biographical Memoirs: Volume 82 This page in the original is blank.