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PROMOTING INNOVATION 2002 Assessment of the Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing Committee for Review and Assessment of the Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. www.nap.edu
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract Number C-OPC-21756 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08889-5 (book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-50643-3 (PDF) Available from: Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, <http://www.nap.edu>. Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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COMMITTEE FOR REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR ADVANCING TECHNOLOGY IN HOUSING C.R. “CHUCK” PENNONI, Chair, Pennoni Associates, Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ROBERT BLANCETT, USG Research & Technology, Inc., Libertyville, Illinois PAUL R. FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst KAREN L. GEORGE, Primen, Boulder, Colorado MANUEL GONZALEZ, KTGY Group, Inc., Irvine, California ASHOK GOSWAMI, National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards, Inc., Herndon, Virginia CHARLES J. KIBERT, University of Florida, Gainesville JOSEPH LAQUATRA, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York TRICIA PARKS, Parks Associates, Dallas, Texas TIMOTHY REINHOLD, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina JOHN K. SPEAR, Richwood Development Corporation, Houston, Texas Staff RICHARD G. LITTLE, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment MICHAEL D. COHN, Project Officer DANA CAINES, Administrative Associate PAT WILLIAMS, Project Assistant JULIA MELKERS, Consultant
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BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT PAUL GILBERT, Chair, Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Seattle, Washington MASSOUD AMIN, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis RACHEL DAVIDSON, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York REGINALD DESROCHES, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta DENNIS DUNNE, California Department of General Services, Sacramento PAUL FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst YACOV HAIMES, University of Virginia, Charlottesville HENRY HATCH, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia AMY HELLING, Georgia State University, Atlanta SUE McNEIL, University of Illinois, Chicago DEREK PARKER, Anshen+Allen, San Francisco, California DOUGLAS SARNO, The Perspectives Group, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia WILL SECRE, Masterbuilders, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio DAVID SKIVEN, General Motors Corporation, Detroit, Michigan MICHAEL STEGMAN, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill DEAN STEPHAN, Charles Pankow Builders (retired), Laguna Beach, California ZOFIA ZAGER, County of Fairfax, Fairfax, Virginia CRAIG ZIMRING, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Staff RICHARD G. LITTLE, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment LYNDA L. STANLEY, Executive Director, Federal Facilities Council MICHAEL D. COHN, Program Officer DANA CAINES, Financial Associate JASON DREISBACH, Research Associate PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Dennis Creech, Southface Energy Institute, Charles W. Graham, Texas A&M University, Walter Grondzik, Florida A&M University, Amy Helling, Georgia State University, Boyd C. Paulson, Stanford University, and Madan (Matt) Syal, Michigan State University. Although the reviewers listed have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Charles B. Duke (NAE), Xerox Research and Technology. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 6 Scope of the Study, 6 Approach to Review and Assessment, 7 Organization of This Report, 7 References, 8 2 EVOLUTION OF PATH 9 Genesis of PATH, 9 PATH Management, 11 PATH Mission, Goals, and Objectives, 12 PATH Activities, 14 Findings and Recommendations, 19 References, 19 3 PATH’S APPROACH TO ADVANCING HOUSING TECHNOLOGY 21 Introduction, 21 Advancing Innovation in Housing, 22 Promoting Innovation, 22 Removing Barriers, 23 Disseminating Information, 25 Fostering Research and Development, 25 Findings and Recommendations, 26 References, 26
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4 2002 ASSESSMENT OF PATH 28 Introduction, 28 Uncertainties and Assumptions, 29 Progress Toward Achieving Goals, 29 Assessment of the PATH Program as a Whole, 41 References, 42 5 PROCESS FOR LONG-TERM ASSESSMENT AND PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT 44 Introduction, 44 Assessment Framework, 45 Assessment Data, 46 Findings and Recommendations, 48 References, 49 APPENDIXES A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members 53 B Statement of Task 57 C Presentations to the Committee 58 D Summary of Previous Reports 60 E Assessment Questions and Performance Targets 63
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Acronyms and Abbreviations BEES Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability BFRL Building and Fire Research Laboratory CSREES Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension Service DAPIA Design Approval Primary Inspection Agency DOC Department of Commerce DOD Department of Defense DOE Department of Energy DOL Department of Labor DOT Department of Transportation EEBA Energy and Environmental Building Association EIFS exterior insulated finishing system EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAWG Federal Agency Working Group FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FPL Forest Products Laboratory GPRA Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 HUD Department of Housing and Urban Development ICF insulating concrete form MHRA Manufactured Housing Research Alliance
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NAHB National Association of Home Builders NAHBRC National Association of Home Builders Research Center NASFA North American Steel Framing Alliance NCSBCS National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards NES National Evaluation Service NIST National Institute of Standards and Technology NRC National Research Council NSF National Science Foundation NSTC C&B National Science and Technology Council Construction and Building Subcommittee OECD Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development PATH Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing PATH-CoRP PATH Cooperative Research Program PD&R Policy Development and Research PIC PATH Interagency Council R&D research and development USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture