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Appendix G U.S. Department of Agriculture- Agricultural Marketing Service Standards for Milk and Dairy Products TABLE G-1 Microbiological Standards for Raw Milk for Manufacturing Purposes Bacterial Estimate Classification Direct Microscopic Count, Standard Plate Count, Plate Loop Count, Pectin Gel Plate Count, Petrifilm Aerobic Count, Spiral Plate Count, Hydrophobic Grid Membrane Filter Count, Impedence/Conductance Count, or Reflectance Calorimetry Herd milk Commingled milk Not over 500,000/mL Not over 1,000,000/mL SOURCE: Dairy Programs (2002). 366

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USDA-AMS STANDARDS FOR MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS TABLE G-2 Updated Microbial Standards for Processed Milk Products: U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service Standards for Grades of Dairy Products 367 Product Standard Methoda Reference Nonfat dry milk (spray process) U.S. extra grade 10,000/g U.S. standard grade 75,000/g U.S. grade not assigned 100 x 106/g Nonfat dry milk (roller process) U.S. extra grade U.S. standard grade U.S. grade not assigned Instant nonfat dry milk U.S. extra grade U.S. grade not assigned Dry whole milk U.S. premium U.S. extra U.S. standard U.S. grade not assigned Dry buttermilk and buttermilk product U.S. extra U.S. standard SPC SPC DMC 50,000 100,000/g 100 x 106/g 10,000/g 10/g 40 x 106/g SPC SPC DMC SPC Coliform DMC Not applicable SPC 10,000/g SPC 10/g Coliform 50,000 SPC 10/g Coliform 100 x 106/g DMC 20,000/g 75,000/g SPC SPC Dairy Programs, 2001c Dairy Division, 1984 Dairy Programs, 2001 d Dairy Programs, 2001b Dairy Programs, 2001 a Dry whey Dairy Programs, 2000 U.S. extra 30,000/g SPC 10/g Coliform Butter 100/g Proteolytic Dairy Division, 2002 20/g Yeasts and molds 10/g Coliform Whipped butter 50/g Proteolytic Dairy Division, 2002 10/g Yeasts and molds 10/g Coliform Plastic and frozen cream 30,000/mL SPC AMS, 1975 20/mL Yeasts and molds 10/mL Coliform Cottage cheese 10/g Coliform AMS, 1975 100/g Psychrotrophic 10/g Yeasts and molds continued

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368 TABLE G-2 Continued APPENDIX G Product Standard Methoda Reference Ice cream 50,000/g SPC AMS, 1975 Plain 10/g Coliform Frozen 20/g Coliform Sherbet 50,000/g SPC AMS, 1975 10/g Coliform Sweetened condensed milk 1,000/g SPC AMS, 1975 10/g Coliform 5/g Yeasts 5/g Molds Edible dry casein (acid) U.S. extra grade 30,000/g 0/0. lg U.S. standard grade 100,000/g 2/0. lg 0/lOOg 0/g 5,000/g 5/0.lg Yeasts and moldsb Not available Coliform Cheddar cheese SPC Coliform SPC Coliform Salmonellab Staphylococcib Thermophilesb Dairy Division, 1968 Dairy Division, 1956 a SPC = standard plate count, DMC = direct microscopic count. b optional. TABLE G-3 Microbiological Standards for Raw Milk: U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service Standards for Grades of Dairy Products Bacterial Estimate Classification Direct Microscopic Count, Standard Plate Count, or Plate Loop Count No. 1 No. 2 Undergrade Not over 500,000/mL Not over 1,000,000 Over 1,000,000 SOURCE: Dairy Division (2002).

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USDA-AMS STANDARDS FOR MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS REFERENCES 369 AMS (Agricultural Marketing Service). 1975. General specifications for approved dairy plants and standards for grades of dairy products. Fed Regist 40:47910-47940. Dairy Division. 1956. United States Standards for Grades of Cheddar Cheese. Online. Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Available at http:// www.ams.usda.gov/standards/Cheddar.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2002. Dairy Division. 1968. United States Standards for Grades of Edible Dry Casein (Acid). Online. AMS, USDA. Available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/standards/Edible.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2002. Dairy Division. 1984. United States Standards for Grades of Nonfat Dry Milk (Roller Process). Online. AMS, USDA. Available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/standards/Roller.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2002. Dairy Division. 2002. General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service. Online. AMS, USDA. Available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/dairy/genpecs.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2002. Dairy Programs. 2000. United States Standard for Dry Whey. Online. AMS, USDA. Available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/standards/dry_whey_standards_12-14-00.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2002. Dairy Programs. 2001a. United States Standards for Grades of Dry Buttermilk and Dry Buttermilk Product. Online. AMS, USDA. Available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/standards/DBM_02-02- 01.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2002. Dairy Programs. 2001b. United States Standards for Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Online. AMS, USDA. Available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/standards/dry_whole_milk_04-13-01.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2002. Dairy Programs. 2001c. United States Standards for Grades of Nonfat Dry Milk (Spray Process). Online. AMS, USDA. Available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/standards/NDM_02-02-01.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2002. Dairy Programs. 2001 d. United States Standards for Instant Nonfat Dry Milk. Online. AMS, USDA. Available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/standards/INDM_02-02-01.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2002. Dairy Programs. 2002. Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and its Production and Processing. Online. AMS, USDA. Available at http://www.ams.usda.gov/dairy/manufmlk.pdf. Accessed August 15, 2002.